A submarine is an exceptionally planned sort of watercraft that can submerge and work totally submerged. Verification exists to help the conviction that the primary traversable submarine was worked by Cornelius Drebbel, in 1620. In England in the mid-1700s a few submersible watercraft licenses had been conceded to different designers, yet the main military submarine was concocted by an American named David Bushnell in 1775. It was known as the Turtle and could hold one individual. By 1867 the primary submarine fueled by ignition, called the Ictineo II, was worked in Spain. Naval forces started utilizing submarines in the mid 1900s and today they are generally utilized by different militaries around the globe.
Submarines are a special type of watercraft that can operate underwater.
Submarines are equipped with water tanks called ballast tanks that fill up to submerge the vessel. Emptying the tanks and filling them with air causes the submarine to surface.
The Kursk, a Russian submarine, lost all of its 118 crew in 2000 following several explosions inside the vessel.
They are typically large vessels with a high number of crew. Nuclear submarines may have a crew of over 100.
Some submarines are able to remain underwater for several months at a time.
Submarines are used by the military as part of navy forces, protecting aircraft carriers, performing reconnaissance and carrying out other tasks.
Submarines use a variety of communication techniques however it is impossible to transmit sound in the same way it is done above the water. Submarines use VLF (very low frequency), ELF (extremely low frequency), burst transmission, sonar telephone and other methods to communicate with other submarines underwater and non-submerged vessels above the surface.
Submarines are also used in other areas such as marine research, undersea exploration and salvage missions.
A famous book about a submarine adventure was written in 1870 by the French author Jules Verne. It was titled 20,000 Leagues under the Sea. This science fiction book increased the interest in submarines and their design.
Some submarines can remain submerged for months at a time.
The first submarines could only hold one or two people. Today, some submarines can carry more than 100 people.
In the military submarines are used for protecting aircraft carriers on the surface of the water, attacking other submarines and watercraft, as supply vessels for other subs, launching torpedoes and missiles at land and sea targets, and for providing surveillance and protection from would-be attackers.
Submarines typically feature a raised tower which holds radar equipment, the periscope and other systems.
Submarines are used for a variety of non-military purposes including salvage missions, deep sea exploration, and marine exploration.
Submarines use ballast tanks to hold water, allowing them to submerge when necessary.
Early submersibles were developed in the 1600s before the first known military submarine was built in 1775. Named the ‘Turtle’, it held one person and was controlled underwater independently, the first verified submarine capable of doing so.
Both sides of the American Civil War built and used submarines.
Many movies have been made that feature submarines including The Hunt for Red October, K-19: The Widowmaker, Crimson Tide, U-571, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, and 20,000 Leagues under the Sea.
Germans had submarines called U-boats that they used during World War I and World War II to attack the Allied Forces.
The first submarine not propelled by human power was the French vessel named ‘Plongeur’. Launched in 1863, it used compressed air for propulsion.
The first nuclear powered submarine was launched in 1954. It was named the USS Nautilus. Nuclear submarines are able to stay underwater longer than other types of submarines and are also able to move through the water faster.
Developed in the 1800s, torpedoes became an important part of submarine warfare.
French writer Jules Verne published ‘20,000 Leagues under the Sea’ in 1870, a popular science fiction novel that boosted interest in submarine design.
Submarine development and use continued through World War I and II, with German U-boats particularly effective in blocking supply lines to the UK.
Submarines use a variety of power sources including batteries, nuclear power, and engines. Early submarines used gas, steam, and even human power.
Launched in 1954, the first nuclear powered submarine was the USS Nautilus. Nuclear power allowed submarines to operate at high speeds while staying underwater longer than other forms of propulsion such as diesel-electric.
Both the United States and Soviet Union maintained significant submarine fleets during the cold war.
Modern submarines have hulls made from titanium or steel to keep them from becoming crushed by the water's pressure, which increases as the submarine submerges even deeper.
Torpedoes, which are an important weapon used by submarines, were developed in the 19th century.
In August 2000, a Russian submarine named ‘Kursk’ sank in the Barents Sea after a series of explosions inside the vessel, killing all 118 crew.