Facts About Echidnas


The echidna is a type of primitive mammal belonging to the monotreme group (mammals that lay eggs). The genus Echidna consists of two species: the short-beaked echidna and the long-beaked echidna. The long-beaked echidna only lives in the highlands of New Guinea. The echidna can be found in forests, thickets, grasslands, and woodlands. The echidna is a very ancient animal: it coexisted with dinosaurs on earth. The long-billed echidna is an endangered species. For the echidna to survive, habitat loss, fire, drought and traffic accidents are essential.

Echidnas found in South Australia tend to be much darker in colour than their eastern states counterparts.

Echidna is small animal. It reaches 13.5 to 17.5 inches in length and 6.5 to 14.5 pounds in weight.

Pure white and even red-headed echidnas have been spotted on Kangaroo Island.

Body of echidna is covered with two types of hairs. Short hair acts like a fur which maintains the body temperature. Long hairs turn into spines which provide protection against predators.

From mid-May to early September, male echidnas actively seek out females to mate.

Spines are made of keratin which is the same substance that builds human hair and nails. Spines are creamy in color and they can reach 2 inches in length.

The male suitors follow the female for long distances until the female is ready to mate.

Echidna has slender and elongated snout which serves as a nose and mouth at the same time.

Male echidnas have a four-headed appendage.

Echidna has long, sticky tongue, used for catching of its favorite food: ants and termites. Besides that, echidna eats grubs, insect larvae and worms.

Along with the platypus, the echidna is the only other living egg-laying mammal species.

Echidna does not have teeth. Instead, it uses strong pads in the mouth to grind the food before it is swallowed.

Almost a month after mating, the female deposits a single, soft-shelled, leathery egg into her pouch. The gestation period is quite quick – after only ten days the baby echidna hatches.

Echidna is active both during the day and night. It can detect underground prey by using sense of smell and by recognizing electrical signals of the insect's body.

Baby echidnas are called ‘puggles’.

When the prey is detected, echidna digs a hole using sharp claws and pointed snout.

Their tongues work very quickly, enabling them to slurp up ants, worms and insect larvae.

Main predators of echidna are dingoes, eagles, feral cats, foxes and Tasmanian devils. When faced with danger, echidna will curl in a ball or hide in a crevice. In both cases, it will expose its spines to prevent predators from eating it.

The claws on an echidna’s hind limbs are curved backwards to help them dig, which is another way they help protect themselves from danger as they can dig their way out of trouble.

Echidna is very strong animal. It can lift the load that is double of its weight.

Echidnas have the lowest body temperature of any mammal, 32°C (89°F). 

Echidna is very clever animal. It is smart almost like a domestic cat.

Their body temperatures are not controlled in the same way as that of other mammals, and can fluctuate by up 6–8°C over the course of the day.

Echidnas mate during July and August. At the beginning of the mating season, female develops a pouch. 22 days after mating, female will lay one egg into the pouch. Ten days later, blind and hairless baby will hatch.

Male echidnas may also mate with hibernating females.

Unlike other mammals, echidna does not have nipples and mother feed her baby with milk that is coming from pores of two milk patches. Baby spends 45 days in the pouch, until its spines develop completely.

Echidnas are mammals without nipples.

Baby echidna, also known as puggle, depends on the mother's milk even after it leaves the pouch. Puggle will remain hidden in the burrow and it will continue suckling until it reaches seven months of age.

While the platypus has 40,000 electroreceptors on its bill, echidnas have only 400-2,000 electroreceptors on their snouts.

Echidna can survive up to 50 years in captivity.

The echidna has a very large brain for its body size.

Facts About Blueberries


Blueberry is a flowering plant that belongs to the Ericacae family. This plant originally came from North America, but can now be found on almost every continent. The blueberry prefers the colder climate and grows on sandy and acidic soils. Wild blueberry species tolerate drought. Certain types of blueberries produce more fruit after forest fires. According to some studies, blueberries have been part of the human diet for at least 13,000 years and are considered to be one of the healthiest types of fruits that can prevent the development of numerous diseases. In addition to having beneficial health effects, people grow blueberries because of their ornamental morphology.

One large handful (1/2 a cup) of juicy blueberries contains just 44 calories but has 2 grams of dietary fibre and 10% of your daily recommended vitamin C content.

Blueberries grow in the form of bush. Depending on the size, they can be divided in two groups: highbush and lowbush blueberries. Lowbush blueberries, also known as wild blueberries, are usually 3.9 inches tall. Highbush blueberries can reach 13 feet in height.

Blueberries ranked number one in antioxidant health benefits in a comparison with more than 40 fresh fruits and vegetables.

Depending on the variety, blueberries have either deciduous or evergreen leaves. They are oval or lanceolate in shape. Deciduous plants change color of the leaves seasonally. Light green foliage is characteristic for the spring, red for the fall.

The blueberry is one of the only foods that is truly naturally blue in colour. The pigment that gives blueberries their distinctive colour—called anthocyanin—is the same compound that provides the blueberry’s amazing health benefits.

Blueberry has bell-shaped flower. It can be white, pink or red in color. Flower contains both male (stamens) and female (pistil) reproductive organs.

People have been eating blueberries for more than 13,000 years.

Honeybees and bumblebees are main pollinators of blueberries.

The blueberry (genus Vaccinum) is one of the only commercially-available fruits that is native to North America.

Fruit of blueberry belongs to the group of berries. It changes the color from greenish to reddish to dark purple when it ripens. Blueberry is rare example of food that is naturally blue in color.

Blueberries were called “star fruits” by North American indigenous peoples because of the five-pointed star shape that is formed at the blossom end of the berry.

Blueberry is rich source dietary fibers and vitamins C, K, A, E and vitamins of the B group. It also contains valuable minerals such as iron, manganese, phosphorus and potassium.

A single blueberry bush can produce as many as 6,000 blueberries per year.

Blueberries are usually sold fresh, frozen or dried. They can be consumed raw or in the form of sweet desserts such as blueberry pie.

British Columbia is the largest highbush blueberry growing region in the world. As a country, Canada ranks third behind the US and Chile. Blueberries are Canada’s most exported fruit.

Blueberries are used for the production of juices, jellies, jams and breakfast cereals.

The silvery sheen (or “bloom”) found on the skin of blueberries is a naturally occurring compound that helps protect the fruit. This why you should only wash blueberries right before you’re going to eat them. The berries should be stored in the refrigerator and will keep fresh for up to 10 days.

Blueberries are used in the manufacture of delicious and healthy blueberry wine.

Consumption of blueberries has been linked to health benefits including a reduced risk of cancer, increased insulin response, a reversal in age-related memory loss, and lowering blood pressure.

Blueberries produced from the highbush varieties are mostly used fresh. Blueberries produced from the lowbush varieties are often used in food processing.

Blueberries can help heart health, bone strength, skin health, blood pressure, diabetes management, cancer prevention, and mental health.

Blueberries are rich in antioxidants that prevent inflammation. Some studies indicate that blueberries may prevent development of certain types of cancer.

One cup of blueberries provides 24 percent of a person recommended daily allowance of vitamin C.

Studies on rats showed that blueberries control blood pressure and reduce brain damage after experimentally induced stroke.

According to a study from the Harvard School of Public Health and the University of East Anglia, in the United Kingdom (U.K.) regular consumption of anthocyanins can reduce the risk of heart attack by 32 percent in young and middle-aged women.

Blueberries improve memory and motor skills. They are known as anti-aging fruit because they delay senescence of cells.

Vitamin C, vitamin A, and the various phytonutrients in blueberries function as powerful antioxidants that may help protect cells against damage from disease-linked free radicals.

USA is the greatest manufacturer of blueberries in the world. More than 500 million pounds of blueberries are produced in the USA each year.

Blueberries also contain folate, which plays a role in DNA synthesis and repair. This can prevent the formation of cancer cells due to mutations in the DNA.

Lifespan of blueberry depends on the variety and environmental conditions. Under ideal conditions, blueberry can survive up to 60 years.

Studies have also found that in addition to reducing the risk of cognitive damage, blueberries can also improve a person’s short-term memory and motor coordination.

Facts About Pittsburgh


Pittsburgh is the second largest city in the state of Pennsylvania, named by General John Forbes in 1758. The French Empire was in control of the Pittsburgh region from 1669 to 1758 when the British Empire took control. It was not until 1783 that the United States gained independence from Great Britain. and the border with Pittsburgh began to solidify. The city began to grow, and shipbuilding and the iron, brass, glass, and tin industries provided revenue to expand and continue to grow. , Food, gas and automotive industries. Pittsburgh is 58.3 square miles and has more than 305,000 residents.

There are more than 700 sets of public stairs within the city limits of Pittsburgh. They are maintained by an Inspector of Steps.

Pittsburgh has been home to many firsts in the United States. The first commercial radio station (1920), first Ferris wheel (1893), first Ice Capades (1940), first public TV station in the U.S. (1954), first retractable dome (1961), first aluminum building (1953), and first World Series Game to be held at night (1971).

The world’s first T-rex skeleton is on display at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History.

The first polio vaccine was developed by Dr. Jonas Salk in Pittsburgh in 1954.

Pittsburgh has more days of rain and snow than Seattle, Washington.

The smiley face emoticon was invented in Pittsburgh by a computer scientist at Carnegie Mellon University, named Scott Fahlman (1980s).

In 1905, Pittsburgh became home to the first Nickelodeon, or modern movie theater.

There are more certified 'green' buildings in Pittsburgh then in any other U.S. city.

Pittsburgh’s St. Anthony’s Chapel is home to more Catholic relics than anywhere else in the world except for the Vatican.

There is a running and bike trail that spans 245 miles from Pittsburgh to Washington, D.C. It is called the Great Allegheny Passage.

The stars in the Pittsburgh Steelers’ logo aren’t stars. They are hypocycloids. The logo was “borrowed” from U.S. Steel, which was based in the city.

Pittsburgh has more bridges (446 in total) than any other city on earth, including Venice, Italy.

Pittsburgh’s Beechview neighborhood is home to the steepest street in the United States (and possibly the world): Canton Avenue. It is as steep as 37 degrees.

The Carnegie Museum of Art opened in 1895 in Pittsburgh, making it the first modern art museum in the world.

The Big Mac was invented in the Pittsburgh suburbs by Jim Delligatti, a local McDonald’s franchisee. It was first sold in 1967, and there is even a Big Mac Museum that you can visit.

Many celebrities have been born and raised in Pittsburgh including Andy Warhol, Michael Keaton, Jeff Goldblum, Demi Moore, and Christina Aguilera.

The oldest-known site of human habitation in North America is located just south of Pittsburgh at Meadowcroft Rockshelter.

Pittsburgh has been known as the Steel City because it played a large part in producing steel early in America's history.

Pittsburgh is home to the first commercial radio station in the world, KDKA. The station began by broadcasting presidential election results on November 2, 1920.

Steel made in Pittsburgh was used to construct the Golden Gate Bridge in California and the Empire State Building in New York.

In 1903, the first World Series was held between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Boston Americans. Boston won the series five games to three.

The first Jeep was made in Pittsburgh.

In 1920, 80% of the glass made in the United States came from Pittsburgh.

The Pittsburgh Steelers football team won six Super Bowls in their years in the league so far.

The Fort Pitt Blockhouse in Point State Park is the oldest structure in western Pennsylvania and dates back to 1764.

Many tech firms are located in Pittsburgh including Apple, Intel, and Google.

When the Civic Arena opened in 1961, it was the world’s first retractable dome stadium for a major sports team.

Pittsburgh is a popular tourist destination with many sports, entertainment, museums, theatre, and concert opportunities.

Another fact about Pittsburgh that few know is that from 1891 to 1911, Pittsburgh was officially spelled without its “h”.

Pittsburgh is home to many universities, colleges, and research institutions, including Penn State, Carnegie Mellon, and Slippery Rock University, among many others.

The University of Pittsburgh’s Cathedral of Learning is the second tallest university building in the world.

Pittsburgh has been home to several important health discoveries and advancements, including the first polio vaccine, perfecting organ transplantation, discovery of vitamin C, liver resection, youngest heart-lung transplant, first liver-kidney-heart transplant, and many more.

In 1808, Allegheny County produced enough whiskey each year to give every American man, woman, and child half a barrel of whiskey.

Many films have been shot in whole or in part in Pittsburgh, including The Dark Knight Rises, Jack Reacher, The Fault in Our Stars, Kingpin, The Mothman Prophecies, and Inspector Gadget.

Baseball Hall of Famers Stan Musial and Ken Griffey, Jr. were both born on November 21 in the small town of Donora, PA (though 49 years apart).

Many popular food inventions were created in Pittsburgh including the Big Mac, Heinz Ketchup, the Klondike Bar, chipped ham, and fried zucchini strips.

George Washington made at least seven trips to western Pennsylvania and entered Pittsburgh’s modern city limits at least twice.

In 1891 the city name Pittsburgh lost the 'h' at the end. After 20 years of protest it was restored by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names.

Roslyn Place in Pittsburgh’s Shadyside neighborhood is the last wooden street remaining in Pennsylvania. The road was constructed in 1914 of 26,000 wooden blocks.

Facts About Ernest Rutherford


Ernest Rutherford (August 30, 1871 - October 19, 1937), also known by his title The Right Honorable Lord Rutherford of Nelson, First Baron Rutherford of Nelson, was a British physicist born in New Zealand. the father of nuclear physics.

Rutherford's mother, Martha Thompson, also moved to New Zealand from England when she was also still a child.

Rutherford was born in New Zealand's Tasman district to James and Martha Thompson Rutherford.

Ernest Rutherford was the fourth child and second son of his proud parents. 

While still in college at Canterbury (University of New Zealand), he invented a new type of radio receiver and was awarded a research fellowship.

This fellowship, bestowed by the Royal Commission, allowed him to attend graduate school at the University of Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory.

His work at Cavendish included research that allowed him to identify radio waves from over half a mile, which was a world record at that time for electromagnetic wave detection.

He lost this distinction in 1896 to Marconi.

In 1898, Rutherford was awarded the opportunity to become a physics professor at McGill University in Montreal.

In 1934 Rutherford, Australian physicist Mark Oliphant, and German physical chemist Paul Harteck bombarded deuterium with deuterons, producing tritium in the first fusion reaction.

He returned to England in 1907 to head the physics department at University of Manchester.

He was politically liberal but not politically active, although he did chair the advisory council of the government’s Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and was president (from 1933 until his death) of the Academic Assistance Council (and its successor organization, the Society for the Protection of Science and Learning), an organization designed to aid scientists who had fled Nazi Germany. 

After returning to Cavendish in 1919 as department chair, several Nobel prizes were awarded to researchers in his department for different contributions to physics.

Ernest Rutherford died in Cambridge following a short illness and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Rutherford served as President of the Royal Society before becoming president of the Academic Assistance Council. This council was responsible for securing almost 1,000 refugee students from universities in Germany.

Ernest Rutherford was also a member of the Admiralty’s Board of Invention and Research.

The work that Rutherford both did and oversaw in his various academic leadership roles is responsible for the current understanding of the nuclear level structure of atoms. Under his leadership over his students, the first experiment in splitting an atom was a success, as was the discovery of the neutron.

A lesser-known fact about Ernest Rutherford was his love for cars and golf in his spare time.

Element 104, rutherfordium, is named after him.

Another interesting fact about Ernest Rutherford is his contribution to the invention of the Geiger counter. He worked with the German physicist Hans Geiger, who the device is named after, to develop an electrical counter for ionized particles. 

Despite his designation as the father of nuclear physics, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1908.

Just after Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry, he was approached to contribute to the 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Within this edition of the world-renowned reference compendium, Rutherford wrote the entry for radioactivity.

He is believed to be the only Nobel Prize recipient to conduct his most famous research after earning the Prize for a different line of research.

Another fact about Rutherford you need to know is that he was part of a team that first demonstrated the existence of the atomic nucleus.

Rutherford was knighted in 1914 for his contributions in science, and inducted as a member of the Order of Merit. These titles expired upon his death.

Another interesting fact that you need to know about Ernest Rutherford is that he was the first to coin the terms "Alpha" and "Beta" when describing types of radiation. in 1899, he was studying the absorption of radioactivity by thin sheets of metal foil. 

Facts About Bandicoots


Bandicoot is a small animal that belongs to the group of marsupials. It looks like a rat, but is actually more closely related to a rabbit. The bandicoot can be found in the rainforests, wet and dry forests, swamps and scrublands of Australia. Out of 21 species of bandicoot, seven are classified as critically endangered or already extinct. The number of bandicoots decreased dramatically as a result of climate change, habitat loss, and the introduction of new predator species.

Most species have two to six young at a time; gestation takes 12–15 days.

Bandicoot is a small marsupial. Males can be double of the size of the females. Bandicoots can reach 11 to 31 inches in length, and 0.4 to 3.5 pounds in weight.

Bandicoots are 30 to 80 cm (12 to 31 inches) long, including the 10- to 30-cm (4- to 12-inch) tail.

Bandicoots have long, pointed snout, large ears, short body and long tail. Their body is covered with fur that can be brown, black, golden, white or gray in color.

The body is stout and usually coarse haired, the muzzle tapered, and the hind limbs longer than the front. 

Bandicoots have strong hind legs designed for jumping. Just like in kangaroos, second and third toe on each foot are merged together.

Their toes are reduced in number; two of the hind digits are united, with two claws emerging from the same toe (a trait known as syndactyly).

Bandicoots are nocturnal (active at night) animals. They will spend day hidden in dense vegetation, to avoid predators.

Their teeth are sharp and slender.

Due to small size, bandicoots are easy prey for dingoes, foxes, snakes and wildcats.

Their pouch opens rearward and encloses 6 to 10 teats.

Bandicoots are omnivores (they eat both plants and animals). They usually look for insects, small rodents, eggs, fruit, nuts, seed and berries.

Unlike other marsupials, bandicoots have a placenta. 

When bandicoot detects underground prey, it digs a hole using its front paws and reaches its meal with long snout.

Bandicoots are terrestrial, largely nocturnal, solitary animals that dig funnel-like pits in their search for insect and plant food. 

Bandicoots are vocal animals. They produce snuffing sound while they are looking for food and piglet-like grunting when the food is detected. Also, they produce high-pitched sounds when disturbed.

Farmers consider bandicoots as pests; some species are endangered, and nearly all have declined.

Bandicoots are territorial animals. They will aggressively protect their territory from all intruders that attempt to conquer it.

The long-nosed bandicoots are vaguely ratlike animals with long snouts. 

Bandicoots are solitary animals that will gather only for mating. Both males and females reach sexual maturity at age of five months. Although female is able to have new litter every 7 to 8 weeks, only 2 to 3 litters will be produced each year.

The common long-nosed bandicoot is still tolerably common in lightly forested country in eastern Australia.

Just like in other marsupials, female is equipped with pouch. Bandicoots have the shortest period of pregnancy of all mammals that lasts only 12 days. Baby is very small and poorly developed at birth. After birth, it will crawls toward the pouch, where it will complete its development.

The eastern barred bandicoot is common in Tasmania, but it has been eliminated from the mainland, apparently by predation by red foxes and feral cats. 

Baby spends 54 days in the pouch, attached to the teat which provides milk. Pouch usually holds between 3 and 6 babies at the same time.

The desert bandicoot, which has been considered extinct since 2016, lived in the central desert regions.

Unlike in other marsupials, pouch is open backward. This is special adaptation to the life style of bandicoots. Backward opening prevents dirt to enter the pouch when mother digs the ground while searching for food.

The three species of short-nosed bandicoots, Isoodon, are shorter-snouted, smaller-eared, and more heavily built than the long-nosed bandicoots and occasionally weigh up to 2.5 kg (5.5 pounds).

Young bandicoots are ready for independent life when they reach age of four months.

Rabbit-eared bandicoots, more usually known as bilbies, are species of Macrotis. 

Bandicoots have short lifespan. If they manage to escape from the predators, bandicoots can survive up to three years.

The smaller lesser bilby (M. leucura) probably became extinct sometime between 1931 and 1960.

Facts About Caffeine


Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and although it is classified as a psychoactive drug, it is unregulated and legal in most countries. Caffeine has a bitter taste and occurs naturally. When consumed in small amounts, it can stimulate concentration and memory. as well as help prevent drowsiness. However, when consumed in excessive amounts it can lead to increased heart rate, anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia. As with many types of medication, stopping all caffeine intake with regular use can lead to withdrawal symptoms such as irritability and headaches. Caffeine can have some health benefits, such as: B. Reducing the risk of developing specific cancers and Alzheimer's disease.

According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, it takes about 30 to 60 minutes for caffeine to reach its peak level in the blood. The body typically eliminates half of the drug in 3 to 5 hours, and the remainder can linger for 8 to 14 hours.

Despite most people getting up and wanting coffee (because of the caffeine it contains), the body is already alert. It's not really necessary until later when cortisol levels in the brain decrease.

96% of beverage caffeine consumed in the US is from coffee, soft drinks, and tea, with coffee contributing the most to caffeine intake.

It only takes about 10 minutes from the time one drinks a beverage with caffeine for it to kick in and have its effects in the brain.

Coffee is still the best way to get a rush of caffeine quickly; a tall Starbucks coffee will send about 260 mg of caffeine rushing through your veins, compared to the 45 mg in the same size Diet Coke.

Because caffeine can be addictive, it can cause withdrawal symptoms when someone stops consuming it. This mild physical dependence can lead to nasty headaches and the best way to cut caffeine from the diet is by gradually reducing the amount one consumes over a period of time.

Don’t be fooled by energy drinks like Red Bull and Monster. They actually contain less caffeine than a cup of coffee and instead are filled with tons of chemicals and sugar, so you end up loading up on empty calories for less energy.

Caffeine can have a variety of side effects including blurred vision, dizziness, dryness of the mouth, drowsiness, decreased hunger, increased hunger, thirst, confusion, anxiety, insomnia, irritability, hyperglycemia, muscle tremors, nausea, stomach aches, rapid heartbeat, diarrhea, increased urination, and ketones in the urine.

Caffeine is the most socially acceptable drug for a reason. Studies suggest that it can improve mood and concentration, sharpen your focus, and increase lifespan. Recently it has been linked to staving off Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

It would take the caffeine found in 100 cups of coffee, consumed in four hours, to kill an adult.

Caffeine does have a darker side (and we're not talking espresso). Caffeine has been linked to upping anxiety, sleeplessness, and even causing psychosis. Taken in too high a dose, caffeine can cause vomiting, convulsions, coma, and even death.

Despite being labeled 'decaffeinated', this type of coffee usually still contains caffeine.

Once the caffeine hits your stomach it takes about 20 minutes for your brain to start feeling the effects.

Women usually metabolize caffeine more quickly than men, and people who smoke metabolize it twice as fast as someone who doesn't smoke.

Caffeine works by blocking adenosine, the neurotransmitter that tells your brain it’s tired.

There is more caffeine in coffee than there is in most energy drinks.

While adenosine is blocked, dopamine production increases, meaning that a cup of coffee in the morning might just make you a happier person.

There is more caffeine in a lighter roast coffee than a darker roast coffee because roasting burns off caffeine.

Caffeine can increase athletic ability by 3%. Aside from telling your brain it’s not tired, caffeine increases the amount of calcium released inside our muscles, enabling them to work harder.

Caffeine can be found naturally in a variety of foods including seeds, fruits, leaves, cocoa beans, kola nuts, chocolate, and tea leaves.

It is important to remember caffeine is a drug, and with any drug, the withdrawals are hard. Expect an inability to concentrate, headaches, and even flu-like symptoms if you plan on giving it up.

Caffeine is sometimes found in medications.

The Food and Drug Administration considers 400 milligrams a safe amount of caffeine for healthy adults to consume daily.

Caffeine can be manmade - and this artificial caffeine is sometimes added to foods and beverages.

Pregnant women should limit their caffeine intake to 200 mg a day, according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

It is estimated that the average American consumes approximately 200mg of caffeine each day in some form or another.

The half-life of caffeine, or the time it takes to eliminate one-half of the caffeine people have in their bodies, is about 4 hours, said James Lane, an emeritus professor of psychiatry at Duke University School of Medicine in Durham, North Carolina.

Finland is the country with the highest caffeine consumption per person per day at roughly 400mg.

In 2014, two young men — an 18-year-old in Ohio and a 24-year-old in Georgia — overdosed on pure powdered caffeine, according to the FDA. 

Medical experts at the Mayo Clinic recommend that teenagers consume no more than 100mg of caffeine a day. Younger children are best to avoid consuming caffeine as much as possible.

Although it contains less caffeine than a small cup of coffee, a 12-ounce can of Sunkist Orange soda has 41 milligrams of caffeine in it, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest.

It's best to avoid consuming caffeine late in the day because it can make it difficult to fall asleep. It can take 4 to 12 hours for the body to completely clear caffeine.

Caffeine has also been added to shampoos to purportedly thicken hair and stop hair loss, but there's no good evidence that these pricey products can truly deliver results.

Powdered caffeine can be deadly because it only takes a little bit to kill someone. One teaspoon of the powder is equal to 28 cups of coffee. And the powdered form is more potent.

Caffeine in plants function as a natural pesticide to help ward off insects that may attack the plants, and it may be useful in pest control, suggested a study from researchers at Harvard Medical School that was published in 1984 in the journal Science. At high doses, caffeine can even be toxic to insects.

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