Facts about Gorilla


The gorilla is the largest primate and the second closest relative (after chimpanzees) of humans. There are three subspecies of gorillas: western lowland gorillas, eastern lowland gorillas, and mountain gorillas. As their names suggest, these animals inhabit different parts of Africa and in different habitats. Gorillas are critically endangered species. Their numbers in the wild have declined dramatically over the past century due to habitat loss, hunting, animal and zoo trafficking, and disease.

Gorillas are one of our closest living relatives, and they share at least 95% of their DNA with humans.

Male gorillas are two times bigger than females. They can reach height of 6 feet and weight of 480 pounds.

African apes (gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos) diverged from a common ancestor about 5 million years ago and belong to the family Hominidae.

Females are usually 5 feet tall, weighing up to 215 pounds.

Gorillas live in fairly stable social groups comprising of one adult male usually referred to as the silverback (because of the silver hair on his back which signals full adulthood) and multiple females with juveniles and infants. When young males reach the age of 8-11 they will usually emigrate away and either join another group or form new groups.

Gorilla is 4 to 8 times stronger than human.

Gorilla family groups each live within relatively small areas of land. Different groups can however occupy converging areas and co-exist peacefully.

Just like humans, gorilla has 10 fingers on hands, 32 teeth and forward-looking eyes. Unlike humans, big toes on feet look like thumbs. Also, their arms are longer and more muscular.

Gorillas will groom each other by combing each other with their fingers and teeth. This ‘social grooming’ is an important aspect of gorilla groups which helps to establish and reinforce social bonds.

Almost whole body of gorilla is covered with black hair. Between the age of 13 and 15 years, male gorilla changes the black color of the hair at its back into silver.

Western Lowland gorilla diets have a much higher proportion of fruit.

Gorilla can stand in the upright position, but it normally walks using all four extremities.

Females will start giving birth at about 10 years old and will have offspring every 3-4 years. When in oestrus she will be able to conceive for only three days in the month.

Upright position is usually associated with punching of the chests and it reflects excitement or aggressiveness.

Gorillas have a gestation period of nine months like humans, but babies usually weigh less than humans at approximately 4 pounds, their development is however roughly twice as fast.

Another unique characteristic of gorillas is their ability to experience wide variety of emotions: love, hate, fear, pride, jealousy, anger, greed, grief…

Gorillas spend a good deal of their time on the ground rather than in the trees, and will make new nests on the ground each night.

Gorillas are very intelligent animals. They communicate using at least 22 different sounds, body posture, facial expression, body odor…

Gorillas were seen for the first time using simple tools to perform tasks in the wild in 2005. They were observed using sticks to test the depth of muddy water and to cross swampy areas.

Gorillas live in groups called "troops". They are composed of one dominant male (silverback), one younger (sexually immature) male, 3 to 4 females and 3 to 6 young gorillas.

Gorillas are able to learn and apply sign language to communicate with people.

Gorillas have large bellies because they have long intestines required for plant-based diet. They eat large quantities (up to 40 pounds per day) of shoots, branches, leaves, fruits and vines. Other than that, gorillas eat ants, termites, insect larvae and worms.

In Mountain gorillas, the ‘belch vocalization’ is a contact call and sign of contentment while foraging.

Gorillas are diurnal (active during the day) animals. They spend third part of the day in search for food, one third in eating and the rest of the day in resting.

Most gorillas will use a low grumbling sound to both locate each other and as sign of contentment.

Gorilla builds a nest using the leaves. Nest can be located on the ground or on the trees, but gorilla never sleeps in the same nest twice. Often change of the nest protects it against the predators such as leopards and crocodiles.

Aggressive displays, such as the beating of chests and charging are quite rare but will be used by male gorillas as a warning if surprised or threatened.

Gorilla can mate any time during the year. Pregnancy in female lasts 8.5 months and ends with one baby.

Although gorillas are generally quiet, they have a range of complex vocalisations which are used to communicate information in numerous contexts including teaching survival skills to young, searching for food, and during courtship.

Females are devoted mothers. They will continue carrying their babies in the arms even after they learn to walk. Females reach sexual maturity between 10 and 12 years, while males between 11 and 13 years.

Gorillas were seen for the first time using simple tools to perform tasks in the wild in 2005. They were observed using sticks to test the depth of muddy water and to cross swampy areas.

Lifespan of gorilla is between 35 and 50 years.

Facts about Saudi Arabia


Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a country in Western Asia. It covers most of the Arabian Peninsula with an area of ​​approx. 2,150,000 km². Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Middle East and the second largest country of the Arab world.

Saudi Arabia was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 to the early 20th century when the Ottoman Empire collapsed.

The Saudi king’s official title is “Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques.” King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud has been king since January 2015.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was formally declared in September 1932 when Ibn Saud proclaimed himself as King Abdulaziz.

Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Middle East, about the size of Western Europe and one-quarter the size of the U.S.

The Al Saud dynasty has ruled ever since and holds a monopoly of political power. King Abdulaziz and he has been succeeded by his descendants.

Construction on Saudi Arabia’s Kingdom Tower began in 2014. The new, tallest building in the world will stand 3,280 feet (1 km) high and will dwarf the Burj Khalifa hotel in Dubai by 600 feet (183 meters).

Until 2018, Saudi Arabia was the world’s only country where women could not drive legally. The law was changed in 2018 following years of campaigning.

Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the world without a river.

Saudi women were not allowed to take part in the Olympics until 2012. In 2012, two women took part in the London games and in 2016 four women took part in the Rio de Janeiro games.

Saudi Arabia along with Malaysia, Thailand, and South Africa were the most dangerous countries in which to drive according to a World Bank report in 2000.

Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of the world’s second-largest religion, Islam.

In 2012, Saudi Arabia banned smoking in government offices and most public places, which includes a ban on shishas (water pipes) and prohibits the selling of tobacco to minors.

Saudi Arabia is home to Islam’s two holiest shrines in Mecca and Medina. Mecca is the holiest of Muslim cities where Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born in around 570 AD.

Saudi statistics state that the country is the world’s fourth largest importer of tobacco, and Saudis spend about US$8 million a day on cigarettes.

Mecca is home to one of the world’s largest annual gatherings. Every year, over 2 million Muslims make a pilgrimage to Mecca to perform the hajj, which is considered the fifth and final Pillar of Islam. Every capable adult Muslim is expected to complete at least one hajj in their lifetime.

Riyadh’s camel market is one of the largest in the world and sells about 100 camels per day.

The Abraj Al Bait Towers in Mecca holds the records for the world’s tallest clock tower, the world’s tallest hotel and the world’s largest clock face at 43m in diameter.

Saudi Arabia is considering ending beheadings as the national form of execution in favor of firing squads because of a lack of swordsmen to be found in the country.

In 1975, King Faisal was assassinated by his nephew and succeeded by his brother Khalid.

The Arabian Peninsula is the world’s largest peninsula.

Saudi Arabia is home to the King’s Cup camel race. The epic camel race has up to 2,000 participants and races across a 19km track during the Janadriyah National Festival.

Saudi Arabia is a prohibition state, and it is not legal to drink alcohol in the kingdom.

Saudia Arabia is an oil-rich nation, possessing around 16% of the world’s proven petroleum reserves. As of 2019, the petroleum sector accounts for around 87% of budget revenues, 42% of GDP and 90% of export earnings.

Birth control is illegal in Saudi Arabia.

Around 95% of Saudi Arabia is desert.

Saudi Arabia remains an absolute monarchy and has the last significant monarchy in the world. The country has been ruled by the Al Saud family since its inception as a nation on September 23, 1932.

15 of the 19 hijackers involved in the 2001 9/11 attacks on the US were from Saudi Arabia.

According to Forbes magazine, Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah is the 8th most powerful person in the world and the world’s most powerful Muslim.

Saudi Arabia has the fifth-highest net migration in the world. Measured over a five-year period, 1,722,804 more people moved to Saudi Arabia than left it.

In October 2013, the United States overtook Saudi Arabia, which had led the world for decades, as the world’s largest exporter of oil, averaging 12.1 million barrels per day that year.

Saudi Arabia’s flag consists of a green background with a white Arabic inscription and a sabre. The inscription reads, “There is no god but God; Muhammad is the prophet of God.” The sabre is symbolic of the militancy of their faith and green is synonymous with Islam.

Non-Muslims are not allowed to have Saudi citizenship, and non-Muslim places of worship are not allowed in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia is the world’s 13th most obese country with 69.7% of its population classified as overweight.

Immigrants make up more than 30% of the total Saudi population, according to UN data from 2013.

In 2017, archaeologists used Google Earth to uncovered nearly 400 previously undocumented stone structures called “gates” in the Arabian Desert. They believe the gates were built by nomadic tribes between 2,000 and 9,000 years ago.

About eighty percent of the Saudi Arabian labor force is non-national.

Saudi Arabia has the death penalty and is the world’s third-highest executer. In 2019, Saudi Arabia put 184 people to death including a mass execution of 37 people for terror offences.

Baby camel is one of the most tender of Saudi meats; it is a specialty of Jeddah and Jejaz.

Saudi Arabia has the eighth highest CO2 emissions in the world.

Officially, all Saudis are Muslims. Fifteen percent are Shiite Muslims who practice mainly in the eastern provinces of Saudi Arabia.

The tallest flagpole in the world is located in Saudi Arabia. At 171m (561ft), the Jeddah Flagpole was erected in 2014.

Instead of an income tax, Saudi Arabia has the zakat. It is a 2.5% impost that is it is levied on assets rather than income and is required of Muslims but not on guest workers.

Facts about Diana Ross


Diana Ross is an American singer and songwriter who was born in Detroit, Michigan on March 26, 1944, to Diana Ernestine Earle Ross, the daughter of Ernestine (née Moten) and Fred Ross. Until she was seven, Diana lived in the far north of Detroit with singer Smokey Robinson as a neighbor. Diana's mother became seriously ill and the children lived with relatives in Alabama until she recovered. At the age of 14, his family moved to a housing project in Detroit where he began a 4-year college prep school. She specialized in topics related to fashion design. She also took modeling courses. When she was 15, Diana joined a girl group called Primettes and began her music career.

When she was born, a clerical error made when signing the birth certificate meant that she was officially registered as being called Diane Ernestine Earle Ross. This was later rectified to Diana, although many of her friends and family still call her Diane to this day.

Diana Ross has been nominated for 12 Grammy Awards. She was finally awarded one in 2012 for the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.

Diana Ross has never won a Grammy Award for her music.

In the 1960s Diana Ross became the lead singer of the group The Supremes and had 12 number one singles in the United States. Only The Beatles were able to rival their success during their time period on the charts.

Diana Ross performed in the half-time show at the 1996 Super Bowl.

Some of The Supremes major hits were Baby Love, Where Did Our Love Go, Stop! In the Name of Love, You Can't Hurry Love, You Keep Me Hangin' On, and Love Child.

When Ross attended Florence Ballard’s funeral in 1976, she was booed by fans gathering outside.

Diana Ross' first solo album, released in 1970, was titled Diana Ross. On the album were the hit songs Ain't No Mountain High Enough, and Reach Out and Touch Somebody's Hand.

She almost starred in the blockbuster film ‘The Bodyguard’!  

Diana Ross' second solo album was released in 1973, titled Touch Me in the Morning. The title track was her second #1 hit solo song, following Ain't No Mountain High Enough from her first solo album.

Diana Ross once suffered from an eating disorder called Anorexia Nervosa.

Diana Ross' third solo no. 1 hit was Theme from Mahogany from the Mahogany Soundtrack.

Diana Ross was once arrested in an airport. The incident, which took place in 1999, involved her grabbing the breast of one of the airport’s guards.

Diana Ross' first gold certified album was the 1979 album The Boss.

Diana Ross was arrested for DUI in 2002. This was while she was receiving treatment for substance abuse at a rehabilitation facility in Tucson, Arizona.

Diana Ross; final no. 1 hit was Endless Love. It was her sixth no. 1 hit in total.

Diana Ross once worked as a secretary for Motown Records before she was signed with them as a singer.

In 1970 Diana Ross began her solo career. McNally Smith College of Music created The Diana Ross Performance Scholarship in 2004 for a full four-year scholarship for an outstanding student.

She was the inspiration behind the play and the 2006 romantic comedy musical drama movie ‘Dreamgirls’. 

Diana Ross ventured into an acting career with the movie Lady Sing the Blues in 1972, for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe and Academy Award.

Ross' second husband, Arne Nass Jr., died after falling off a mountain in 2004.

Diana Ross was named Female Entertainer of the Century by Billboard magazine.

She is a spokesperson for National Children’s Day. 

The Guinness Book of World Records named Diana Ross as the most successful female artist in history in 1993.

Diana Ross is also on the board of a national charity program called ‘A Better Chance’.

As a solo artist and member of The Supremes Diana Ross has sold more than 100 million records around the world.

Her first appearance on television was playing the role of a nun in a 1968 episode of ‘Tarzan’ in which she appeared with the other Supremes.

In 2014 Diana Ross was awarded the Ella Fitzgerald Award at the Festival International de Jazz de Montreal for her 'extraordinary contribution to contemporary jazz vocals'.

She was honored by the McNally Smith College of Music in 2004 when they established the Diana Ross Performance Scholarship.

In 2015 Diana Ross began to perform in Las Vegas at The Venetian Las Vegas Hotel and Casino, where she had nine shows.

She has an estimated personal net worth of $250 Million!

Diana Ross dated Kiss lead singer Gene Simmons from 1980 to 1983.

Ross’ great-great-grandmother trained to become a midwife.

Diana Ross has 5 children and has been married twice.

Facts about the Penis


A penis is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate females (or hermaphrodites) during copulation. The male genital organ of higher vertebrates, carrying the duct for the transfer of sperm during copulation. In humans and most other mammals, it consists largely of erectile tissue and serves also for the elimination of urine.

The word “penis” is from the Latin meaning “tail.” The plural of penis is penises or penes. The word “phallus” is sometimes used to mean “penis,” but traditionally it is used to describe images or symbols of the penis.

Most mammals have a bone called the baculum or os penis in the penis, but it is absent in humans and horses.

The average male orgasm lasts 6 seconds.

The human penis is larger than that of any other primate, both in terms of proportion to body size and in absolute terms.

Smoking can shorten your penis by a centimeter.

Domestic cats have barbed penises. They have about 120 to 150 one-millimeter-long spines that point backwards.

1 in 400 men is flexible enough to blow themselves.

Male canines are the only animals that have a locking bulbus glandis at the base of the penis. 

The most common cause of penile rupture: vigorous masturbation.

Doctors can use the foreskins of circumcised infants to grow skin for burn victims. Just one foreskin can create 23,000 square meters of skin.

Every year on average of 200 men break their penis.

A hard-shelled sea creature named Colymbosathon ecplecticos is the oldest known species with a penis. Its name means “amazing swimmer with large penis” in Greek.

The largest penis is 13.5 inches long.

King Fatefehi of Tonga most likely has the penis with the most action. He supposedly deflowered 37,800 women from 1770-1784, or about 7 women a day.

Men in The Republic of Congo are reported to have the largest penis.

The average erect penis size is between 5-6 inches. A flaccid penis is around 3.5 inches.

There is a museum in Iceland dedicated to the penis.

A bottle-nosed dolphin named Freddie was known to tow bathers through the water by hooking his large penis around them.

In Japan every year there is a festival devoted to celebrating the penis.

Squirrel monkeys and male baboons will gesture with an erect penis as a threat to predators or as a sign of impending danger.

Men in North Dakota reportedly buy the largest condoms in the U.S.

Men who have been hanged often get a “death erection” also known as "angel lust."

Men in Mississippi buy the smallest condoms.

Globally, approximately 30% of men over 15 years old have been circumcised, according to a 2007 WHO report.

The male G-Spot is located on their prostate, while the perineum—the skin located in between the anus and the scrotum—is another major erogenous zone.

Nearly all Jewish and Muslim males in the world are circumcised and make up 70% of all circumcised men in the world.

The blue whale has the largest penis of any animal.

Approximately 80% of American men are circumcised.

An adult chimpanzee is significantly smaller than an adult gorilla, it has a penis about double that of the gorilla.

Studies show that women who orgasm through vaginal stimulation were pickier about penis size than other women.

According to condom manufacturers, only 6% of the world’s population of men needs an extra-large sized condom.

There are at least 42 kinds of bacteria living on the skin of the penis. However, circumcised penises have fewer bacteria. In fact, circumcision has been linked to lower risk of getting HIV and other diseases.

In a condition called Diphallus, males are born with two penises. Only one fully works and it impacts 100 men worldwide.

A condition called “Koro” or “penis panic” is a type of mass hysteria in which men believe their penises are vanishing. It’s more common in Africa and the Far East.

The adult male elephant has the largest penis of any land animal at 6 feet on average. It is S-shaped when fully erect.

The U.S. ranks 18th in terms of average erect human male penis length, at 5.1 inches. North and South Korea rank last at 3.8 inches, while the Republic of Congo is first at 7.1 inches.

A man will ejaculate on average of 7,200 times during his lifetime. Of that number 2,000 is from masturbating.

Eight-five percent of women are satisfied with the penis size of their partners, although only 55% of guys like their size. About 90% of women prefer a wide penis to a long one.

The average speed of ejaculation is 28 miles per hour.

The man with the record for the most ejaculations in one day is Azael, a porn actor. He had 11 ejaculations during a 24-hour period while recording a test tape for a later video he planned to make.

An estimated that 600 men will go to the ER for sex toy injuries in a year.

In 1954, a man ejaculated 15 ml of fluid. The average amount a man releases is 3.2 ml.

Having sex at least once a week can lower a man’s risk of heart disease by 30%, stroke by 50%, and diabetes by 40%.

Mo Ka Wang from Hong Kong lifted 250 pounds two feet off the ground with his penis in 1995.

A man has an average of 11 erections per day. 9 of which are at night.

Among ancient tribes it was not unusual for a new king to eat the penis of his predecessor to absorb his sacred authority. This practice was banned, however, by ancient Hebrews.

The penis stops growing when a man is in his early 20s.

Penises are generally darker than the body from which they hang.

Shoe size does not determine penis size.

Facts about Chestnut


The chestnut is a deciduous tree that is closely related to oak and beech. They all belong to the Fagaceae family. There are 9 different types of chestnut found in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Chestnut cultivation began 2000 years before Christ. In the past, the plant was an integral part of the human diet. It was used as a substitute for potatoes in areas where it was not possible to grow potatoes. All species, except the American chestnut, are numerous in nature. At the beginning of the 20th century, the American chestnuts almost disappeared from North America due to a fungal disease. About 4 billion chestnuts were destroyed over a period of 40 years. 

Chestnuts are primarily compose of starch (carbohydrates) in contrast to other kinds of tree seeds and nuts which are rather high in calorie, protein, and fat.

Size of chestnut depends on the species. They can grow in the form of bush or tree. Tallest species, American chestnut, can reach 100 feet in height.

Chestnuts are an excellent source of dietary fiber; provide 8.1 g (about 21% of RDI) per 100 g.

Chestnut tree has reddish-brown or grey bark that is smooth in young trees but becomes rough and furrowed in old trees. Bark on certain trees looks like a net made of strong ropes.

Chestnuts are rich in folates akin to green leafy vegetables, which is quite a rare but unique feature for nuts and seeds.

Chestnut tree has ovate or lanceolate leaves characterized by widely separated teeth. Upper side of leaves is darker compared to the bottom side.

Chestnuts, just like hazelnuts and almonds, etc., are gluten free food items. 

Flowers appear during the spring and summer. They are arranged in long catkins. Each tree develops both male and female flowers (monoecious plant).

Chinese chestnuts (C. mollissima) are good in vitamin A; provide 202 IU per 100 g.

Flowers cannot be self-pollinated. Since they are fragrant, flowers easily attract insects which transfer pollen from one tree to another and perform pollination successfully.

In Japan, steamed chestnut rice (Kuri Gohan) is a popular autumn dish.

Fruit of chestnut tree belongs to the group of nuts. It is protected with hard, brown husk which is covered with spines.

In Korea, a kind of sweet dessert known as yaksik is prepared using chestnuts, jujube, and pine nuts mixed with glutinous rice for the New Year celebrations.

Chestnut trees produce more fruit when they are subjected to lower temperatures during the winter. Unlike old trees, young trees are highly sensitive to frost.

The nuts are used as one of the main ingredients in poultry stuffing, especially in the Thanksgiving turkey.

Chestnuts are important food source for animals such as squirrels, wild boars, birds and deer.

Chestnut flour is also sought after in many Tuscany recipes such as polenta, sweet bread, biscuits, cakes, soups, and ice-cream.

Chestnut and wheat contain same amount of carbohydrates. Level of starch is two times higher in chestnut than in potato. Chestnut is also rich source of vitamin C, vitamins of the B group and minerals such as potassium, iron and magnesium.

Copper is one of the primary nutrients we can find in chestnuts.

Chestnut can be consumed raw, or as part of various salty and sweet dishes. Dried chestnut can be grind and used as flour.

Per 100 grams, chestnuts contain approximately 72 mg of oxalate.

Wood of chestnut tree has similar properties like oak. It is often used in the manufacture of houses and furniture.

Horse chestnuts may also be called by the name ‘conkers,’ particularly in the UK.

Chestnut contains high amount of tannins and it is used for tanning of leather.

Horse chestnuts contain a substance called glucoside aesculin. Unfortunately, this compound is toxic to humans.

Leaves and the husk are used in cosmetic industry for the production of shampoos.

Most chestnut species are tall trees, commonly with furrowed bark when mature. 

Extract of chestnuts is used for starching of textile.

The Chinese chestnut, usually less than 18 metres (about 60 feet) tall, grows at altitudes up to 2,440 metres (8,000 feet).

Lifespan of chestnut tree depends on the species. It can survive from 200 to 800 years in the wild.

Facts about Bison


The bison is a large mammal that belongs to the Bovidae family. Its closest relatives are African and water buffalo, gazelle and antelope. In the past, a large population of bison roamed the Great Plains of North America, from Mexico to Canada. In the 20th century when settlers came to America, bison were almost extinct. The number of bison was reduced from 60 million to almost a thousand animals in numbers. Shortly afterwards they were placed under protection and their number could rise to around 200,000 animals. Most of these animals are kept in ranches where people raise them for their meat. The bison is listed as an critically endangered species in the wild.

Yellowstone National Park is the only place in the U.S. where bison have continuously lived since prehistoric times.

Bison is the largest land animal in the North America. Males are larger than females. They can reach the length of up to 10 feet, weight between 930 to 2200 pounds and height of 6.6 feet.

As of July 2015, Yellowstone’s bison population was estimated at 4,900 -- making it the largest bison population on public lands.

Bison has short, curved and sharp black horns on its head. They can reach between 23 and 29 inches in length.

Bison calves tend to be born from late March through May and are orange-red in color, earning them the nickname “red dogs.”

Bison has a thick, brown coat that provides insulation from the cold and moist weather. It prevents melting of the snow and soaking of the skin.

Bison have been integral to tribal culture, providing them with food, clothing, fuel, tools, shelter and spiritual value.

Hump on the bison's back is composed of muscles. It facilitates movement through the snow.

Established in 1992, the Inter Tribal Buffalo Council works with the National Park Service to transfer bison from national park lands to tribal lands.

Bison lives in smaller groups composed of animals of only one sex. These groups will blend together during mating season.

Bisons can run up to 35 miles per hour.

Group of bison is called herd, gang or obstinacy.

Bisons are also strong swimmers.

Bison is herbivore (plant-eater). It eats grass, twigs and shrubs. Swallowed food will be regurgitated for additional chewing before it is transported to intestines for final digestion.

Bisons are typically foraging for 9-11 hours a day.

Although large in size, bison has couple of natural enemies. Main predators of bison are wolves and humans.

Theodore Roosevelt with William Hornaday formed the American Bison Society in 1905 to help conserve bison population.

Despite its large proportions, bison belongs to the group of fast-running animal. It can run 40 miles per hour.

A bison roll in the dirt to deter biting flies and help shed fur. The process is called wallowing.

Also, bison is able to jump 6 feet off the ground.

Male bison also wallow during mating season to leave behind their scent and display their strength.

Bison gather in large herds during mating season that takes place during the summer.

Fossil records show that one prehistoric bison, Bison latiforns, had horns measuring 9 feet from tip to tip.

Males fight to gain attention of females. Fight rarely ends with serious injuries but they include horn locking, shoving and head-butt kicks.

Bisons have poor eyesight.

Females become sexually mature at age of 2 or 3 years. Pregnancy lasts nine and the half months and ends with one calf (baby). Female will move to an isolated area at the end of pregnancy.

Bisons have excellent senses of smell and hearing.

Calf has 33 to 35 pounds at birth and it is reddish in color. It can stand on its feet soon after birth. 

Cows and calves communicate using pig-like grunts, and during mating season, bulls can be heard bellowing across long distances.

Baby depends on mother's milk for the first seven months of its life. At about two months after birth, calf will develop horns and hump on its back.

Bison made their way to America by crossing the ancient land bridge that once connected Asia with North America during the Pliocene Epoch, some 400,000 years ago.

Average lifespan of bison in the wild is between 12 to 20 years. Captive bison can survive up to 30 years.

Facts about Sri Lanka


Sri Lanka, formerly known as Ceylon and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island nation in South Asia. It is located in the Indian Ocean, southwest of the Bay of Bengal and southeast of the Arabian Sea; it is separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Strait of Palk. The island is mostly flat with some mountains in the central-southern parts.

Sri Lanka is slightly larger than the state of West Virginia/USA or about double the size of Belgium or slightly larger than Lithuania.

Sri Lanka celebrates its independence day on February 4th. It gained independence from Britain on that day in 1948.

It takes a 10.5-hour flight from London/UK to reach Colombo/Sri Lanka, 17 hours from New York/USA and 14.5 hours from Sydney/Australia.

Sri Lankan fishermen developed "stilt fishing" during World War II, when food shortages led to overcrowding on fishing beaches. Instead of standing on the beach, fishermen sit on crucifixes out in the water to fish.

The largest city of Sri Lanka is Colombo with about 600,000 inhabitants. Colombo is the main business centre of the country.

In Sri Lanka, it is common for Buddhist temples to also serve as libraries, schools, and nursing homes.

The Lotus Tower in Colombo is the highest tower in Sri Lanka with 350 m/ 1,148 ft. Lotus Tower is among the 50 tallest skyscrapers in Asia.

Although Sri Lanka is famous for its "Ceylon Tea," the nation was actually the world's largest coffee producer until after the 1870s, when a fungal outbreak decimated the island's coffee plantations.

Sri Lanka's highest mountain peak is the Piduruthalagala with 2,524 m/ 8,281 ft.

Tea exportation is the second largest industry in Sri Lanka, after tourism.

The longest river of Sri Lanka is the Mahaweli River with 335 km/ 208 miles.

Sri Lanka is home to around 50,000 Malay people, an ethnic group from Indonesia.

The largest water reservoir in Sri Lanka is called Kala Wewa and is almost 7 km/ 22,000 ft long.

Sri Lankan civilization has existed since the 6th century BC.

There are more than 125 mammal special such as the Asian elephants or the Sri Lankan Leopard in Sri Lanka.

One of Sri Lanka's famous landmarks, known as the "World's End," is a 4,000-foot, near-vertical cliff located in the highlands.

The Horton plains in the central highlands of Sri Lanka are home to many endemic species such as the sambar deer and the purple-faced langur and many endemic bird species. 

The predominant language spoken in Sri Lanka is Sinhalese.

The Sri Lankan people mainly live in rural areas and only 19% live in urban areas.

Sri Lanka's literacy rate of 85% makes it one of the highest ranked among developing nations.

The religions in Sri Lanka are Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism and Islam.

Sri Lanka's oldest piece of written history is the Dipavasma, a 4th-century chronicle that is believed to have been created by Buddhist nuns.

Most of the people in Sri Lanka are Buddhists or Hindus. Buddhism is Sri Lanka's major religion, practiced by over 70% of the population.

A typical Sri Lankan tradition is when greeting or when meeting a person, you should put your hands together and say the phrase "Ayubowan" which means 'hello' in a much more formal way.

Facts about Daniel Craig


Daniel Craig is an English actor best known for his role as James Bond. He was born Daniel Wroughton Craig on March 2, 1968 in Chester, England, to Carol Olivia and Timothy John Wroughton Craig. Daniel Craig began acting in school plays in elementary school and attended the Everyman Theater where he learned serious acting. When he was 16, Daniel was inducted into the National Youth Theater and moved to London. He then attended the Guildhall School of Music and Drama and graduated in 1991. His first role on screen was in the 1992 film The Power of One.

Daniel Craig has been playing James Bond since 2006, meaning his streak from Casino Royale to No Time to Die is a record-breaking 15 years making him the longest-running actor to portray the character.

Daniel Craig played rugby for Hoylake RFC.

His wedding To Rachel Weisz had only 4 guests. Those guests were two friends, Weisz's 5-year-old son Henry (her son with Darren Aronofsky) and Craig's teenage daughter Ella (who he had back in the early '90s with actress Fiona Loudon).

While attending the National Youth Theatre Daniel Craig worked in restaurants in London to finance his studies.

Daniel Craig is the godfather to Mark Strong's son.

Early appearances on screen included roles in Elizabeth, A Kid in King Arthur's Court.

Daniel Craig is the first James Bond under 6 Feet in height. He stands at a very average 5-foot-10-inches.

Early television appearances included Sharpe's Eagle and Zorro.

Daniel Craig was 38 years old when Casino Royale premiered in November 2006, whereas George Lazenby was just 30 when On Her Majesty's Secret Service was released in December 1969.

Daniel Craig was cast as James Bond 007 in 2005. He took over the role following Pierce Brosnan and is the sixth actor to play the part. The movie Casino Royale was released in 2006.

Daniel Craig is the first Bond actor to be born after the series began. He was born on March 2, 1968, the Bond franchise officially began in 1962 with "Dr. No".  

Some did not feel Daniel Craig was the ideal person for the role of James Bond but his performance earned him a BAFTA nomination.

While attending Guildhall School of Music and Drama in the late '80s, Daniel Craig studied alongside the likes of Damian Lewis, Ewan McGregor, and Joseph Fiennes.

Casino Royale was the highest grossing film in the James Bond series when it was released.

He once worked as a waiter.

Daniel Craig played James Bond again in the movies Quantum of Solace, Skyfall, and Spectre.

He admitted his co-star Nicole Kidman ‘turns him on’.

Daniel Craig was invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 2006.

Daniel Craig had a publicized affair with Kate Moss.

Daniel Craig married an actress named Fiona Loudon in 1992. They had a daughter Ella together before divorcing in 1994.

Daniel Craig has a fear of guns.

Daniel Craig dated a German actress named Heike Makatsch for seven years after his divorce.

He quit smoking before filming Casino Royale, but calls it a ‘constant struggle’.

Daniel Craig starred in the movie Dream House with actress Rachel Weisz. They started dating in 2010 and were married in June of 2011.

A poll done by the condom brand Durex named Daniel Craig the ‘Sexiest Man Alive’ in 2006.

Daniel Craig is involved in many charities including S.A.F.E. Kenya.

In 2006 he was declared to be the “Best Dressed Male” by Esquire Magazine.

Daniel Craig was appointed as the United Nations' advocate for the elimination of mines and explosive hazards in April of 2015.

Out of all of the actors that appeared in the popular “Lara Croft: Tomb Raider” films, Daniel Craig was the only actor who was an actual fan of the video game series to be involved with the project.

Daniel Craig's voice was used for the character of James Bond in the Wii game Golden Eye 007.

Daniel Craig has hosted on Saturday Night Live.

In June 2007 Daniel Craig was ranked number seven by Elle Magazine in their “15 Sexiest Men” poll.

Several former James Bond actors were publicly supportive of Daniel Craig being chosen as the next 007, including Pierce Brosnan, Sean Connery, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, and eventually George Lazenby.

He made a guest appearance at the opening ceremony of the London 2012 Summer Olympic games where he appeared as Bond alongside Queen Elizabeth II.

Casino Royal grossed more than $594,239,000 worldwide. It remained the highest grossing film in the series until Skyfall was released.

Actor Daniel Craig and Timothy Dalton have both played the role of James Bond as well as Lord Aisrael.

Daniel Craig is a fan of Liverpool F.C., and of the sport of rugby.

In 2008 he was ranked number 29 by the Telegraph in the “100 Most Powerful People In British Culture” list.

Daniel Craig made a cameo performance in the 2015 film Star Wars: The Force Awakens, as Stormtrooper FN-1824.

In 2002 Daniel Craig was nominated by the London Evening Standard Theatre Award for Best Actor. The nomination was for his performance in the play “A Number at the Royal Court Theatre Downstairs.”

2017 movies featuring Daniel Craig include Logan Lucky, in which he plays Joe Bang, and Kings, in which he plays Obie.

On 12 June 2008, Craig sliced the top of one of his fingers off while filming Quantum of Solace.

Daniel Craig has made several theatre performances including Angels in America (Joe Pitt), Hurlyburly (Mickey), A Number (Bernard 1 & 2, and Michael Black), A Steady Rain (Joey), Betrayal (Robert), and Othello (Iago).

In September 2015, Craig donated $47,000 to the presidential campaign of Bernie Sanders.