Angel Falls is located in Venezuela and is known as one of the four most beautiful waterfalls in the world and as the highest contiguous waterfall in the world. This waterfall is named Angel Falls after an American aviator first flew over the waterfall in the mid-20th century. The aviator's name was Jimmy Angel. His plane crashed in a waterfall and it took him 12 days to get out of the forest. The locals also mention waterfalls like Salto Angel, Tulume Bena, and Kerepakupai. Angel Falls is 3,212 feet high and the falls are 2,648 feet. Angel Falls is located in Venezuela's Canaima National Park, the third largest national park in the world.
Angel Falls exists as the highest continuous waterfall in the world.
When the weather is very warm and dry, the waterfall sometimes evaporates into a mist before it reaches the bottom.
In Pemon language, the falls is called Kerepakupai Meru meaning “waterfall of the deepest place,” or ParakupáVená, meaning “the fall from the highest point,” while in Spanish Angel falls is known as Salto Angel.
During the rainy and wet seasons the waterfall sometimes splits into two waterfalls.
The falls were named after air-borne American gold prospector James Crawford (Jimmie) Angel.
At the base of Angel Falls the waterfall is approximately 150 meters wide.
Charmed by the beautiful landscape, James again returned to the falls in 1937 accompanied by his wife and acquaintances.
Some people believe that the first European to see Angel Falls was a Spanish explorer named Fernando de Berrio. He may have viewed the falls in the 1500s or 1600s, but there is no real proof.
In late 2009 Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez announced that the falls should be given an indigenous name and be referred to as KerepakupaiMerú.
The first European to reach the base of Angel Falls was Aleksandrs Laime, a Latvian explorer who arrived at the base in 1946. He was the first to clear a path from Churun River to the base of Angel Falls.
Angel Falls is part of the plateau located to the south of the Orinoco River.
At certain times when the water flowing over the falls in plentiful, it is possible to feel small water drops in the air as far as one kilometer away.
Angel Falls was unknown to the world before the mid-1950s.
Jimmy Angel's plane was eventually recovered from the crash site and it can now be seen at Maracay's Aviation Museum.
The Angel Falls’ height (979 meters) is three times the height of the Eiffel Tower, the landmark of Paris.
Visiting Angel Falls is not easy. To get there a tourist must take a plane to Puerto Ordaz or Cuidad Bolivar and then get to the Canaima Camp where they can take a jungle river tour with an indigenous host.
The width of the waterfall is about a hundred and fifty meters at the base. It feeds into a river known as the Kerep.
This tour will take you to the Angel Falls foothills. It is also possible to take a helicopter tour.
Canaima National Park is the second largest national park of Venezuela and the gateway of Angel Falls.
Angel Falls are approximately 15 times taller than Niagara Falls.
The Canaima National Park has two segments – east and west. Angel falls lie in the western section.
The four most beautiful waterfalls in the world are Angel Falls (South America), Niagara Falls (North America), Victoria Falls (Africa), and Iguazu Falls (South America).
Visitors generally fly from Ciudad Boliver, a colonial town, or Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela, to Canaima camp.
When Hugo Chavez was the leader of Venezuela he tried to have the name changed to Kerepakupai Vena but his efforts were not successful and the name is still Angel Falls.
Motorized canoes carry passengers from Canaima camp to Angel falls in an average time of five hours.
Some people choose to skydive off Angel Falls. Other adventure seekers hike up the mountain, sleep in hammocks, or stand at the bottom under the falls.
Trips to the Angel Falls can be booked with various tour operators in advance or through park lodges upon arrival at Canaima camp.
Angel Falls is one the major tourist attractions in Venezuela, despite its location and difficulty to reach.
There is a renowned walkway between Sapo (“Frog”), and Sapito (“Little Frog”) falls in the Canaima National Park.
Disney made a movie in 2009 called UP. It was an animated movie that called the falls Paradise Falls instead of Angel Falls. The falls have also been featured in the 2015 movie Point Break and 1990s film Arachnophobia.
The Venezuela government allowed tourism to Angel falls since 1990. The first visitors stayed in the Boulton camp, now known as Campamento Canaima.
The state of Arkansas is located in the southern part of the United States. It shares state lines with Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Tennessee, and Mississippi. Arkansas is the 29th largest state with an area of 53,179 square miles and the 32nd most populous of the 50 states in the United States. The Quapaw, Osage and Caddo people inhabited the area prior to European exploration and settlement. The Seven Years' War resulted in changing hands of Arkansas between France and Spain and was later included in the Louisiana purchase when Napoleon sold it to the United States. It was the Arkansas Territory for many years until it became the 25th state in 1836. Arkansas left Union and joined the Confederate States of America in 1861, only to return to Union in 1868.
The first people to live on the land now called Arkansas arrived around 11,650 B.C.
The name Arkansas is derived from the name 'acansa' that was used by the Quapaw natives who lived in the area before settlement by Europeans began. It means 'south wind' or 'downstream place'.
The first European to reach the area was Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in 1541.
Arkansas Post was the first permanent settlement in Arkansas, founded by Henri de Tonti, a Frenchman in the mid-1500s.
In 1682 the land was claimed for France as a part of the Louisiana Territory, a huge mass of land including most of the central United States.
Early industry in Arkansas was based on cotton.
In 1861 at the start of the Civil War, Arkansas was a Confederate state.
Arkansas' state bird is the mockingbird.
Arkansas’ name came from the Quapaw Indians, whom the French called the “Arkansaw.”
Its state tree is the pine; its insect is the honeybee.
Arkansas is nicknamed the Natural State because of its beautiful lakes, rivers, mountains, and wildlife.
Arkansas' state flower is the apple blossom.
Arkansas is bordered by Missouri in the north, Tennessee and Mississippi in the east, Louisiana in the south, and Texas and Oklahoma in the west.
Arkansas' song is 'Arkansas'.
Its eastern border is almost completely formed by the Mississippi River.
The nickname for Arkansas is 'The Natural State'.
The Arkansas River Valley is south of the Ozarks, and it includes the state’s largest river, the Arkansas.
Arkansas' state motto is Regnat populus which means 'The People Rule'.
The state’s highest point, Magazine Mountain, is here.
The capital of Arkansas is Little Rock.
The Ouachita Mountains are in western and central Arkansas, and are known for parallel ridges and valleys.
Arkansas has 75 counties and 51 state parks.
The smallest national park in the United States, Hot Springs, is also in this region. The natural springs here can reach 143℉.
The only active diamond mind in the country is located near Murfreesboro. Today it operates as a tourist destination called Crater of Diamonds State Park.
Amphibians such as cricket frogs and Ouachita dusky salamanders can be found in Arkansas.
Mountain View is a community known as the Folk Capital of America, where they have preserved the pioneer lifestyle.
Elk, badgers, and eastern spotted skunks are some of Arkansas’ mammals.
Stuttgart, Arkansas is home to the annual World Championship Duck Calling Contest.
The state’s birds include red-tailed hawks, ivory-billed woodpeckers, and indigo buntings.
Alma, Arkansas is considered to be the spinach capital of the world.
Western pygmy rattlesnakes and eastern collared lizards are among the reptiles that skitter through the state.
Arkansas' official state beverage is milk.
The maple-leaf oak tree exists only in Arkansas.
Located in Arkansas, the Buffalo River is one of only a few remaining unpolluted rivers free-flowing in the U.S. lower 48 states.
Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are among Arkansas’ chief natural resources.
Arkansas' industry today is dominated by paper and wood products, mining, agriculture and electronic equipment.
Arkansas also leads the country in bauxite, a material used to make aluminum.
The highest point in Arkansas is Magazine Mountain, at 2,753 feet above sea level.
Arkansas is the world’s biggest producer of bromine, which is used in pesticides, water purification, medications, and flame retardants.
The lowest point in Arkansas is Ouachita River, at only 55 feet above sea level.
Arkansas is also the only U.S. state that actively mines diamonds.
Ozark National Forest in Arkansas encompasses more than one million acres.
Famous Arkansans include President William Jefferson Clinton, General Douglas MacArthur, and former U.S. Surgeon General M. Joycelyn Elders.
Former U.S. President Bill Clinton was born in Hope, Arkansas. His full name is William Jefferson Clinton and he was born in 1946. He was the 42nd U.S. President, and he served two terms.
In 2008, Arkansas joined the unfortunate list of states that have suffered school shootings: four men were charged with capital murder and other felonies for the fatal shootings of two students and wounding of a third near a University of Central Arkansas dormitory.
Arkansas receives an average of only 5.2 inches of snow each year and 48.52 inches of rainfall.
Flash floods swept through Albert Pike Recreation Area, killing 19 in 2010. One year later, the Mississippi River flooded more than 1 million acres and 63 counties were declared disaster areas.
Johnny Cash, the late, iconic musician, was born in Kingsland, Arkansas.
Food products are the state's largest employing sector, with lumber and wood products a close second.
Hot Springs National Park has 47 hot springs that flow from Hot Springs Mountain. These springs have been visited by Babe Ruth, Al Capone, and Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Arkansas is also a leader in the production of cotton, rice, and soybeans.
Arkansas' state flag was designed during a 1913 contest, won by Miss Willie Kavanaugh Hocker.
Thermometer is a tool that can be used to measure the temperature of a living and non living object. The first known attempt to measure temperature was made in 170 AD by a Greek doctor and scientist. Named Galen. It wasn't until the 16th century, when inventors like Galileo Galilei began working on the thermoscope, that instruments for measuring temperature were developed. In 1612, Santorio Santorio placed a scale on a thermoscope to measure human temperature. In 1654, Grand Duke of Tuscany Ferdinand II found a thermometer covered with alcohol in it. The first modern thermometer was invented in 1714 by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, a German physicist who also discovered the Fahrenheit scale a decade later.
The invention of thermometer has proven to be one of the best events ever as it helped mankind observe elements and perform experiments more accurately. It also revolutionised medical science forever.
The invention of the thermometer is generally credited to the Italian mathematician-physicist Galileo Galilei.
It is said that he kept the process of making thermometers a secret for 18 years. Daniel Fahrenheit's first thermometers' auction price was USD 107,802 at Christie's in London in 2012.
A thermometer measures how cold or hot something is.
The first lowest temperature for a thermometer was created by placing it in a mixture of ice, water and ammonium chloride.
The simplest thermometers are glass tubes that contain a liquid, usually mercury or alcohol, which expands with hat or contracts with cold. As the liquid responds to the heat or cold it moves up or down the tube and the temperature can be read from the scale.
Medical thermometers use the Fahrenheit scale. Normal human body temperature is considered to be 98.6 degree Fahrenheit, also known as 'blood heat'.
Many thermometers have both Celsius and Fahrenheit scales for reading the temperature.
Water boils at 212 degree Fahrenheit and freezes at 32 degree Fahrenheit.
There are a variety of medical thermometers that can be used depending on the patient, including oral thermometers, rectal thermometers, tympanic thermometers, and band thermometers.
There are three popular scales of temperature measurement -- Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin. The Fahrenheit unit is five-ninth of the same unit on the other two scales.
Band thermometers are often used on small children. The band thermometer is placed on a patient's forehead and it reads their temperature.
The Fahrenheit and Celsius converge at minus 40 degree. This means that 40 degree Fahrenheit and 40 degree Celsius show the same temperature.
There are a variety of thermometers for different uses including mercury-in-glass thermometers, alcohol-in-glass thermometers, clinical thermometers, digital thermometers, rotary thermometers, resistance thermometers, thermistor thermometers, liquid crystal thermometers, and infra-red thermometers.
The Fahrenheit scale is mostly used in the United States, Cayman Islands, Bahamas, Belize and Palau. Other parts of the world prefer the Celsius scale.
Thermometers are used for a variety of purposes including for determining weather, for medical and scientific purposes, industrial and engineering uses, flight purposes, measuring water temperatures, and to help regulate and avoid disasters such as nuclear meltdowns.
Some scientists believe that a change in Fahrenheit unit is what an average human body can detect.
In order for a material to be suitable for use in a thermometer that relies on pressure and volume of temperature, it must have three specific properties. It must heat and cool rapidly; it must be able to reverse heating and cooling indefinitely; it must be monotonic in heating and cooling.
The absolute zero or the lowest temperature known to man is minus 459.6 degree Fahrenheit or minus 273.1 degree Celsius.
A thermometer that does not hold its temperature when moved to a new temperature is called a non-registering thermometer.
Registering thermometers are those that hold their temperature when moved to a new temperature until reset.
To change a temperature scale from Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 from the reading, multiply it by 5, and then divide it by 9.
Thermometers must be calibrated by comparing them with a fixed point on the temperature scale or by comparing them with an already calibrated thermometer.
Daniel Fahrenheit died on September 16, 1736 at the age of 55. He worked on an earlier invention of an alcohol-based thermometer, which was invented by Danish scientist Olaus Roemer.
The three major temperature scales for use in thermometers are Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin.
The "Boyce MotoMeter" radiator cap on a 1913 Car-Nation automobile, used to measure temperature of vapor in 1910s and 1920s cars.
Thermometers are used for determining the temperature in regards to weather. A thermometer can help people decide what to wear or what to expect from the weather. If it is very cold and raining drivers can be warned about the potential for freezing rain.
Bi-metallic stem thermometers used to measure the temperature of steamed milk.
Thermometers can be used to help determine if a person is sick because it can measure whether a person has a fever. The human body is usually 98.6 so if it measures higher the individual is considered to have a fever.
An infrared thermometer is a kind of pyrometer (bolometer).
Papaya is a flowering plant that belongs to the Caricaceae family. This plant is native to Mexico and Central America. Papaya grows in tropical areas around the world. It grows in sandy, well-drained soil in areas that have direct sunlight and adequate moisture. Papaya has been an essential part of the human diet for hundreds of years. Apart from its high nutritional value, papaya also has positive effects on human health. Unfortunately, papayas are susceptible to viral, bacterial and fungal diseases which reduce the amount and quality of the fruit available.
The papaya tree can grow from seed to a 20 foot, fruit bearing tree in less than 18 months.
Papaya is a tree-like herb that can reach 16 to 33 feet in height.
The fruit can range in size from 1 to 20 pounds.
Leaves are green, large and divided in seven lobes. They are spirally arranged and located on the top of the plant.
The exact origination of papaya is unknown but it is believed to be native to southern Mexico and neighboring Central America.
Papaya develops white flowers with five petals. Flower can contain male, female or both types of reproductive organs. Type of flower depends on the variety and environmental temperature.
September is National Papaya Month.
Fruit has yellow-green skin on the surface and orange-pinkish flesh underneath it. Large number of black seeds is located in the middle of the fruit.
The white powder sold as “Meat Tenderizer” is composed mainly of an enzyme extract from the papaya, called papain.
Hawaiian and Mexican papaya are two main types of papaya that can be purchased around the world. Hawaiian variety is pear-shaped and weighs one pound. Mexican papaya is heavier (weighs around 10 pounds) but has less intense taste.
There are two types of papayas, the Hawaiian and Mexican.
Papaya is rich source of vitamins C and vitamins of the B group. It contains beta-carotene which turns into vitamin A inside the human body. Besides vitamins, papaya contains numerous valuable minerals and high content of dietary fibers.
Most people only eat the sweet delicious flesh, but you can also eat the small, black seeds in the center of the fruit.
Papaya is mostly consumed raw. This fruit is popular ingredient of cooked meals such as stews and curries in certain parts of the world.
The seeds taste like black pepper. People in some countries use papaya seeds in place of black pepper corns.
Young leaves can be used for fresh salads or they can be boiled and prepared like spinach.
The skin of the fruit is green when unripe and orange when ripe, while the flesh is yellow, orange or red.
Black seeds of papaya have sharp, peppery taste. They are used as a substitute for black pepper in some countries.
Papayas also contain healthy antioxidants known as carotenoids — particularly one type called lycopene.
Leaves of papaya are used in treatment of malaria. Fruit is used in treatment of digestive disorders.
Antioxidants, including the carotenoids found in papayas, can neutralize free radicals.
Since it has antiviral properties, papaya can be used in the treatment of Dengue fever (tropical viral disease). When used in medical purposes, papaya can be consumed raw or in the form of ointments and tables.
Studies note that fermented papaya can reduce oxidative stress in older adults and people with prediabetes, mild hypothyroidism and liver disease.
Harrison Ford was treated with injections of papaya due to injury of spine incurred during the filming of the movie Indiana Jones.
In one study, people with Alzheimer’s given a fermented papaya extract for six months experienced a 40% drop in a biomarker which indicates oxidative damage to DNA — and is also linked to aging and cancer.
Diet based on high quantities of papaya may change the color of the skin on the palms and soles in yellow. This medical condition is known as carotenemia. Color of the skin returns to normal as soon as papaya is eliminated from a diet.
The reduction in oxidative stress is attributed to papaya’s lycopene content and ability to remove excess iron, which is known to produce free radicals.
Unripe fruit and stem contain latex which may induce allergy in sensitive persons.
Research suggests that the lycopene in papaya can reduce cancer risk.
Stem and bark of papaya are used in the production of ropes.
Among 14 fruits and vegetables with known antioxidant properties, only papaya demonstrated anticancer activity in breast cancer cells.
Papaya is perennial plant that can survive around 20 years in the wild.
In a small study in older adults with inflammation and precancerous stomach conditions, a fermented papaya preparation reduced oxidative damage.
Okapi is the only surviving relative of the giraffe. This beautiful animal lives in the north, in the center, and in the east of Congo (Africa). Okapi prefers dense, moist vegetation and thus lives in tropical forests. Okapi was discovered in 1900 with 45,000 animals living in the wild. Intensive deforestation in the 20th century and high susceptibility to fungal, bacterial and viral infections reduced the number of Okapis to around 10,000. They are currently classified as "Near Threatened", meaning they could be easily endangered in the near future.
These animals are found in the African rainforest where trees are dense. They are native to the Democratic Republic of Congo and are typically found within the Ituri Forest, according to the Rainforest Alliance.
Females are larger than males. On average, okapi weighs between 440 and 700 pounds. They can be up to 6.5 feet tall and reach 8.1 feet in length.
Okapi are solitary and territorial.
Okapi has dark purple or reddish brown velvety fur, with white horizontal stripes on their front and hind legs.
On rare occasions, okapi join together to eat in small groups. During this time okapi may groom each other and play together.
Okapi slightly resembles to zebra because of the stripes, but it shares much more similarities with giraffe. It has long skull, large black eyes and very long, purplish tongue, just like giraffe.
They also eat twigs, buds, fungi, fruits and other vegetation that can be found in the rainforest’s understory.
Okapi's tongue is 18 inches long and it can reach both its eyes and ears.
Female okapis typically only give birth to one baby at a time.
Okapi's tongue is prehensile, which means that is used for stripping the leaves and buds from stems of various plants. Besides leaves, okapi eats fruits, grasses, ferns and twigs.
Baby okapis are called calves.
Okapi is mostly active during the afternoon and in the early evening. It often travel 0.5 to 2.5 miles per day while searching for food.
Calves can walk 30 minutes after birth. They don’t defecate until they are between four and eight weeks old, according to the San Diego Zoo.
Okapi is a ruminant, just like cow. It swallows and regurgitates its food for additional chewing several times.
Okapis become mature around 2 to 3 years old and live 20 to 30 years.
Only male okapis have horns which are covered with skin. Females have bumps on their head instead of horns. Horns are short to prevent tangling with dense vegetation in the rainforest.
The common ancestor of the okapi and giraffe lived about 16 million years ago. This ancestor, known as Canthumeryx, had an elongated neck, according to a 2015 study published in the journal Royal Society Open Science.
Okapi has large ear and excellent sense of hearing which is used for detection of potential danger. Okapi also has excellent sense of smell.
While the giraffe ancestors' necks lengthened over time, the animals on the okapi side developed shorter necks.
Leopard is the only natural enemy of the okapi in the wild.
The okapi wasn’t discovered by Western scientists until 1900, according to the Rainforest Alliance.
Okapis are solitary and territorial animals. They produce tar-like substance and release urine to mark their territory.
Okapi have thick, oily fur that keeps them dry when it rains.
Female okapi vocalizes when she is ready for the mating. Males and females spend few weeks together, which is enough for females to become pregnant.
In addition to being a great utensil for eating, their tongue is also used for grooming. It is so long they can reach their eyes and ears with it.
Pregnancy lasts between 14 and 16 months and it ends with one calf. Young okapi looks like an adult animal, except it has a fringe of hair along its spine. It disappears at the age of one year.
Okapi stripes are sometimes called “follow me” stripes, as the bold pattern makes it easy for a calf to follow its mother through the dark rain forest.
Calf spends first few weeks of its life hidden in dense vegetation. It does not defecate for the first 4 to 8 weeks because it is too weak and it can be easily detected (sniffed out) by predators.
The ears of an okapi can rotate independently, so the animal can listen for sounds both in front and behind.
Average lifespan of the okapi is between 20 and 30 years.
Orange is a citrus fruit that belongs to the Rutaceae family. There are more than 600 types of citrus trees found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Oranges come from Southeast Asia. Citrus cultivation began around 2500 BC. Oranges were introduced to Europe in the 15th century and soon after (late 15th and early 16th century) it was shipped to South America, which became the world's largest producer of citrus. Oranges are a very popular and healthy fruit. Oranges are used not only in human nutrition, but also in the manufacture of perfumes and cosmetics.
Oranges are the largest citrus fruit in the world.
Orange tree is evergreen plant that can reach 30 to 33 feet in height, with a crown that can reach 20 feet in diameter.
Orange juice is the most popular fruit juice in America.
Leaves are oval in shape. They have fine, rounded teeth on the edges. Leaves are alternately arranged on the branches.
There are over 600 varieties of oranges.
Flower of the orange tree is white in color and it blossoms in spring.
Florida is the top orange producer in the United States.
Botanically speaking, fruit of orange tree belongs to the group of berries. It has peel on the surface which protects juicy flesh in the middle of the fruit. Flesh is usually divided in 10 segments. Size and sweetness of the fruit as well as the color of the peel and flesh depend on variety.
Spain has over 35 million orange trees.
Orange tree rarely reproduces via seed. It is usually propagated by grafting.
Brazil is the world leader in orange production, producing about half of the world’s orange juice and approximately 80% of the world’s orange concentrate.
Almost 70 million tons of oranges are produced each year. Brazil is the largest producer of oranges. One third of commercially available oranges originate from Brazil.
With a high resistance to disease, more oranges are killed by lightning than by plant diseases.
Oranges are rich source of vitamin C, vitamins of the B group and minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus.
In Texas, oranges are in season from September to April.
Oranges can be consumed raw, in the form of juices, marmalade or as a part of various desserts. 85% of globally produced oranges are converted into orange juice which is often served with breakfast in the western societies.
Some research suggests that the vitamin C in oranges may be linked with a lower risk of certain cancers.
Due to high content of vitamin C, orange can improve immune system, facilitate absorption of the iron and accelerate wound healing.
Though oranges are relatively low in calories, eating several per day can end up leading to weight gain.
Orange peel contains fragrant oils that are used in the aromatherapy and industry of perfumes. Flower of the orange tree is used for the same purposes.
Orange peels are not poisonous, and as many cooks know, orange zest can pack a big flavor punch.
Petals of the flowers are used for the production of the orange flower water. This liquid is often used as flavor for desserts and baking goods in the Middle East cuisine.
Orange peels contain calcium, several B vitamins, and vitamins A and C.
Orange peel contains chemicals which repel pests such as slugs. Because of that, sliced orange peel can be used as natural pesticide in gardens.
Oranges originated around 4000 B.C. in Southeast Asia and then spread to India.
Dried leaves and flowers of orange tree can be used for the preparation of tea. Peel of bergamot orange is used for flavoring Earl Grey tea.
Oranges are a hybrid of the pomelo, or "Chinese grapefruit" (which is pale green or yellow), and the tangerine.
Sticks made of orange wood are used for pedicure and manicure.
The orange tree is a small tropical to semitropical, evergreen, flowering plant. It grows up to 16 to 26 feet (5 to 8 meters).
Orange tree can survive up to 50 years under appropriate climate conditions.
Renaissance paintings that display oranges on the table during "The Last Supper" are wrong. Oranges were not cultivated in the Middle East until sometime around the ninth century.