The goal of Monopoly is to acquire as many properties and collect as much rent as possible, ultimately leading to a monopoly of ownership.
The Monopoly brand has 160 licensees around the world.
The highest rent property on the Monopoly game board varies by region. In the U.S., it is named “Boardwalk” after a street in Atlantic City. In Spain, it is named “Paseo del Prado” after a street in Madrid, and in France, “Rue de la Paix” is the name of the most coveted property space.
In 2015, the 14th Monopoly World Championships will be held in Macau, China.
Charles Darrow's nieces inspired the first tokens, which included an iron, a purse, a lantern, a thimble, a rocking horse, a cannon, a battleship, a top hat, a shoe, and a race car.
The last Monopoly World Championships were held at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, N.V. in 2009.
When Darrow tried to sell Monopoly to Parker Brothers they initially declined because it was too complex. He released it himself.
A player from the U.S. has not won the Monopoly World Championships since 1974.
When Monopoly became successful locally Parker Brothers decided to negotiate marketing rights.
The first winner of the Monopoly World Championships was Lee Bayrd from the United States. The first championships were held in 1973 in Liberty, New York.
Parker Brothers began manufacturing and marketing Monopoly in 1935.
Every few years, national champions from around the globe meet for the Monopoly World Championships tournament.
Monopoly is manufactured and sold in 47 different languages today.
The “House Rules” added to the classic Monopoly game in 2014 were: Free parking, fast cash, dash for the cash, frozen assets, see the sights and lucky roller.
Monopoly's subtitle is "The Fast-Dealing Property Trading Game."
In 2014, Monopoly fans globally debated on Facebook which of their favorite "House Rules” Hasbro should add to the classic Monopoly game.
Monopoly has 28 properties, and a total of 40 spaces.
In the 2013 Monopoly “Save Your Token” campaign, fans voted to replace the iron token with a new cat token.
Monopoly has 16 Chance cards, 28 Title Deed cards, and 16 Community Chest cards, as well as 32 houses and 12 hotels.
In 2010, residents of Canada, Turkey, Russia, Korea, Peru and Hong Kong voted to create updated versions of the Monopoly game for their area.
When a person lands in jail in Monopoly they can pay $50 to get out, use a 'get out jail free' card if they have one, or roll a double. A person goes to jail if they roll doubles three times in a row.
In 2008, nearly 3,000 Monopoly fans around the world united to set the world record for the most people playing the game at the same time.
The properties that players most often land on include the B&O Railroad, GO, and Illinois Ave.
Tokens from the United States Monopoly: Here & Now Edition were flown into space aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis in 2007.
Monopoly games can be licensed with different themes. To date there have been over 300 different Monopoly versions created with versions themed on movies, teams, and other topics.
In 1990, the Monopoly Junior game first introduces kids under eight years old to the favorite fast-dealing property trading game.
Monopoly games in different countries have different street names. In France the most expensive rental property to land on is Rue de la Paix.
In 1998, celebrated San Francisco jeweler Sidney Mobell created the most expensive Monopoly set in the world valued at $2 million.
The most expensive Monopoly game in the world was created in 1998 by Sidney Mobell, a jeweler in San Francisco. It had a value of $2 million.
In 1978, the Neiman Marcus Christmas catalog offered a chocolate version of the Monopoly game priced at $600.
In 2007 tokens from the United States Monopoly game were flown into space aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis.
A Monopoly version for the iPhone was introduced in 2008.
In 1972, the Commissioner of Public Works in Atlantic City, threatened to change the names of the real Baltic and Mediterranean Avenues, but public outcry vetoed the bill.
In Monopoly Millionaire, the first person to earn $1 million wins the game.
In the 1970’s, a Braille edition of the Monopoly game was created for the visually impaired.
The Monopoly World Championships tournament is held every few years. It has been held in Toronto, Tokyo, and Monte Carlo and many others since it began in 1973.
On record, the longest game of Monopoly ever played lasted 70 straight days.
Monopoly has appeared in movies such as Zombieland, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and in Gossip Girl.
Games of Monopoly have been played in unusual places including on a ceiling, underground, and on a U.S. nuclear submarine.
A Monopoly player has a 64% chance that they will land on a railroad as they go around the board each time.
Texas has a phrase 'Six Flags over Texas', which refers to the fact that there have been six different countries that have ruled the area, beginning in 1519. These countries include Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, United States, and the Confederate States of America.
It is bordered by Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast.
From 1836 to 1845, Texas was an independent nation.
As of January 2019, the population of Texas was estimated to be about 28.3 million people. It is the 2nd most populous state in the United States.
Texas' capital is Austin, which is also considered to be the live music capital of the world.
It is also the 2nd largest state in the United States in terms of total area with 696,241 square kilometers (268,581 square miles).
The largest city in Texas is Houston and the largest metro is Arlington/Fort Worth/Dallas.
Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the US.
The deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history - the Galveston hurricane = took place in Texas in 1900. This hurricane resulted in approximately 8,000 deaths.
Guadalupe Peak, also known as Signal Peak, is the highest natural point in Texas, with an elevation of 2,667 meters (8,751 feet) above sea level. It is located in Guadalupe Mountains National Park, and is part of the Guadalupe Mountains range in southeastern New Mexico and West Texas.
The state of Texas produces the most greenhouse gases of any U.S. State - approximately 680 billion kg of carbon dioxide per year.
Although Texas is popularly associated with the U.S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas’s land area is desert.
If Texas were an independent country, it would rank 7th in the world for producers of greenhouse gas.
Texas has over 480 kilometers (300 miles) of coastline.
Texas' state mammal is the armadillo.
The state has 14 national parks and 51 state parks.
It is estimated that there are approximately 16 million cattle in Texas.
The Alamo is one of the most important historic sites in the United States. Part of a mission station established in 1718, it was built by Franciscans in 1744 and by 1836, had been converted into a fort. It became famous during the Texan War of Independence after a small force barricaded themselves in against an overwhelmingly superior Mexican army some 3,000 strong.
The world's largest rose garden is located in Texas. It is the Tyler Municipal Rose Garden and has 38,000 rose bushes.
The recorded history of Texas begins with the arrival of the first Spanish conquistadors in the region of North America now known as Texas in 1519, who found the region populated by numerous Native American tribes.
The very first rodeo in the world was held in 1883 in Pecos, Texas.
The Native Americans’ ancestors had been there for more than 10,000 years as evidenced by the discovery of the remains of prehistoric Leanderthal Lady.
Texas has the most tornadoes of any state each year. On average they experience 139 per year.
Texas comes from the Hasinai Indian word tejas meaning friends or allies.
The first governor and president of Texas was Sam Houston, who lived from 1793 to 1863.
The term “six flags over Texas” refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory.
The first word that was ever spoken on the moon was Houston, in 1969 during the moon landing.
Texas is popularly known as The Lone Star State.
The western hemisphere's largest Ferris wheel is located in Dallas State Fair Park. It is called the Texas Star.
Though 10% larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size.
Dr Pepper was invented in 1885 by a Waco pharmacist named Charles Alderton.
If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile and Zambia.
Actors Chuck Norris and John Wayne are both honorary Texas Rangers, making them members of the oldest North American statewide law enforcement agency.
The King Ranch in Texas is bigger than the state of Rhode Island.
Davy Crockett died at the Alamo.
Edwards Plateau in west central Texas is the top sheep growing area in the country.
The Alamo is a historical site in San Antonio Texas, where the Mexican General Santa Anna defeated the Texan defenders.
Approximately 50 billion is spent in Texas each year by tourists visiting historical sites, state parks and other points of interest.
More wool comes from the state of Texas than any other state in the United States.
Today it is still considered a hanging offence to steal cattle in Texas.
In Texas there is a city called Slaughter. No murder has ever been recorded in this city.
Texas is also known as the Lone Star State. This name represents Texas' struggle for independence.
Typical mushroom has a stem and a cap with gills on the bottom side of it. Mushroom is not a plant or animal. Its DNA shares more similarities with DNA of humans than with DNA of plants.
A mushroom is neither a fruit nor a vegetable; technically mushrooms aren’t even plants.
Mushrooms recycle dead plants and return valuable nutrients into the ground. They are often used for degradation of dangerous substances such as oils, pesticides and industrial waste.
Mushrooms are a type of fungi; Fungi are living organisms that are distantly related to plants, and more closely related to animals, but rather different from either of those groups.
Many plants live in symbiosis (called mycorrhizal relationship) with mushrooms. Mycelium (thread-like mass of hyphae) of fungi nourishes the root of plant with nutrients, and in return it gets food that plant produces.
All mushrooms are fungi, but not all fungi are mushrooms.
To ensure successful growth and enough food for themselves, mushrooms produce antibiotics to eliminate competition. One of the best known antibiotics - penicillin, is obtained from the fungi called Penicillium.
Many mushroom species are important decomposers, metabolizing non living organic matter. This means they break down and “eat” dead plants. However, many species have a special, symbiotic, “mycorrhizal” relationship with particular species of plants. Often, neither the mushroom nor the plant will grow without a mycorrhizal partner.
Mushrooms are made of 90% of water. They are often described as "forest meat" due to high content of proteins (they contain more proteins than peanuts, corn and soybean). Some mushrooms, such as Laetiporus, even taste like chicken.
Roughly speaking, mushrooms are: 50% inedible but harmless, 25% edible, but not incredible, 20% will make you sick, 4% will be tasty to excellent, 1% can kill you.
Edible mushrooms are good source of vitamins of the B group and minerals such as copper and potassium (some species contain more potassium than banana).
Mushrooms grow throughout the year but are most plentiful in autumn. While cultivated mushrooms may be available anytime, most wild mushrooms only appear in autumn.
The most popular mushrooms used in human diet are white button mushrooms. China is the greatest producer of mushrooms in the world.
Edible mushroom species have been found in association with 13,000-year-old archaeological sites in Chile. Ötzi, the mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BC in Europe, was found with two types of mushroom.
Collecting of wild mushrooms is also known as mushrooming or mushroom hunting.
Edible mushrooms are consumed for their nutritional value and they are occasionally consumed for their supposed medicinal value. Mushrooms consumed by those practicing folk medicine are known as medicinal mushrooms.
Due to large number of poisonous mushrooms in the wild that often resemble the edible varieties, collecting (and eating) of wild mushrooms is not recommended unless a person is an expert for this field.
In a 100 gram (3.5 ounce) amount, raw mushrooms provide 22 calories.
Around 70 species of mushrooms from Mycena family glow in the dark. They can be used as "torches" to light the way through the forest.
Mushrooms are the only vegetarian food that can make vitamin D. Actually, they contain a “pro-vitamin,” or precursor, called ergosterol that is converted into vitamin D when exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation—similar to how your skin synthesizes the vitamin in response to sun exposure.
Mushrooms reproduce via spores produced in the gills. Spores are made of tough substance (chitin) and they can remain dormant for decades or even centuries.
Mushrooms are also great sources of protein, fiber, B vitamins (especially niacin), vitamin C, calcium, minerals, and selenium. They also contain antioxidants that are unique to mushrooms, such as ergothioneine, which according to studies is a highly powerful antioxidant.
Mushrooms were used as a source of pigment for dyeing of fabrics in the past.
The health benefits of mushrooms include relief from high cholesterol levels, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and diabetes. They also help in weight loss and increase the strength of your immune system.
Mushrooms are used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries.
More than 75 species of bioluminescent mushrooms exist on Earth, and though some may be drab during the daytime, all are mesmerizing at night.
Modern studies showed that mushrooms have excellent anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. They can be used to reduce blood cholesterol level, to boost immune system and in treatment of different types of cancer.
The chicken of the woods is a very tasteful mushroom found all over the world. It’s called the “chicken of the woods” because of its remarkable resemblance to chicken meat when cooked properly.
The largest and the oldest mushroom in the world can be found in Blue Mountains of Oregon. It covers 2.200 acres of land and its age is estimated to 2.400 years.
Long before trees overtook the land, Earth was covered by giant mushrooms 7.3 meters (24 feet) tall and 0.9 meters (3 feet) wide, these giant spires dotted the ancient landscape.
Denali's peak is 20,310 feet above sea level, making it the highest mountain in North America.
Denali is the third highest of the Seven Summits (the highest peaks of the 7 continents) following Mount Everest in Nepal and Aconcagua in Argentina.
Denali is located in Denali National Park and Preserve, which is more than 6 million acres in size. Denali National Park and Preserve is larger than New Hampshire's entire state.
Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U.S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Denali National Park and Preserve.
Denali has had several names including Bolshaya Gora (Russian), Densmore's Mountain, Mount McKinley, and finally Denali.
The upper half of Denali is permanently covered with snow and has five massive glaciers on its slopes. The longest glacier is the Kahiltna Glacier with a length of 71 kilometers (44 miles).
Prior to Russian or American settlement the Koyukon Athabaskan Natives referred to the mountain as Denali or Dinale.
The mountain is characterized by extremely cold weather. Temperatures as low as −59.7 °C (−75.5 °F) and wind chills as low as −83.4 °C (−118.1 °F) have been recorded by an automated weather station located at 5,700 meters (18,733 feet).
In 1896 Denali was renamed Mount McKinley.
In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, which was unsuccessful.
In 1917 Mount McKinley National Park was established.
In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, which was later proven to be false.
In 1975 the mountain was officially named Denali by the state of Alaska.
The first verifiable ascent to Denali’s summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, and Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit.
In 1980 the size of Mount McKinley National Park was tripled and it name was changed to Denali National Park and Preserve.
The federal government still continued to call it Mount McKinley National Park.
In 1947, Barbara Washburn becomes the first woman to reach the summit while her husband Bradford Washburn becomes the first person to summit twice.
It took until 2015 for the U.S. government to recognize the name officially. President Barack Obama approved the change to Denali in August 2015.
In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, and therefore the most popular currently in use.
Denali is taller than Mount Everest when calculated by measuring the distance from base to summit. Denali's summit is 18,000 feet from its base while Mount Everest's summit is 12,000 feet from its base.
In 1970, first solo ascent by Naomi Uemura.
Denali has two main summits - the South Summit and the North Summit.
In 1972, first descent on skis down the sheer southwest face, by Sylvain Saudan an extreme skier, dubbed “skier of the impossible.”
Different native names for Denali include Diinaalii, Diinaadhiit, Diinaazii, Dghelay Ka'a and Dghili Ka'a.
In 1979, First ascent by dog team achieved by Susan Butcher, Ray Genet, Brian Okonek, Joe Redington, Sr., and Robert Stapleton.
The first attempted climb of Denali took place in 1903, by Judge James Wickersham. This route in particular would not be ascended successfully until 1963, due to danger of avalanches. James Wickersham attempted to climb the mountain via Peters Glacier and the North Face. It is now known as Wickersham's Wall.
In 1993, Joan Phelps is the first blind climber to reach the ascent.
An explorer named Dr. Frederick Cook claimed to have made the first successful climb in 1906 but was later proven to have been untrue.
In 2001 Galen Johnston, 11, becomes the youngest person to reach the summit.
Denali's main summit was first successfully reached in 1913 by Walter Harper, a native of Alaska.
In 2013, Alaska resident Tom Choate, 78, breaks the record as the oldest person to reach the summit.
Denali is a popular mountain for climbers, despite its cold climate. Almost 60% of climbers reached the top in 2003, but by this year almost 100 climbers had lost their lives while attempting to reach the top.
In June 2015, a survey team led by Blaine Horner placed two global positioning receivers on the summit to determine the precise position and elevation of the summit. The summit snow depth was measured at 4.6 meters (15 feet). The United States National Geodetic Survey later determined the summit elevation to be 6,190 meters (20,310 feet), not 6,194 meters (20,320 feet), as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry.
To reach Denali's top it can take two to four weeks and most climbers use the West Buttress Route.
In a typical year 1,300 people try to climb Denali.
Barbara Washburn was the first woman to reach the summit of Denali, in 1947.
An estimated 32,000 climbers have attempted Denali with about a 50% success rate.
In 2013 Tom Choate, a 78 year old climber, became the oldest man to reach Denali's summit.
Weasels have long slender bodies and short legs. They have a long neck and tiny ears.
In Greek culture, a weasel near one’s house is a sign of bad luck, even evil, “especially if there is in the
household a girl about to be married”, since the animal (based on its Greek etymology) was thought to be an unhappy bride who was transformed into a weasel and consequently delights in destroying wedding dresses. In neighboring Macedonia, however, weasels are generally seen as an omen of good fortune.
Weasels can spray a horrible smelling fluid that stinks as bad as a skunk spray. Their spray is thick, yellow, and oily.
In Japan, weasels were seen as yōkai(ghost, phantom), from time immemorial, and they cause various strange occurrences.
Weasels will sometimes do a crazy dance that researchers believe may hypnotize its prey so that it is temporarily off guard.
In the Native American tradition, the weasel has the medicine for seeking out secrets. Trust your own senses in regard to other people, and you will come out all right, even if it means going alone. This is part of what weasel teaches.
Weasels can be found in Britain, Western Europe, the Mediterranean, North Africa, North America, Asia, and New Zealand.
The English word “weasel” was originally applied to one species of the genus, the European form of the least weasel. This usage is retained in British English, where the name is also extended to cover several other small species of the genus.
Weasels live in sand dunes, lowland forests, grassy regions, in small towns, and in other regions provided there is food.
Much like their skunk relatives, weasels release foul-smelling substance from their anal glands as a defense mechanism, and perhaps even to mark their territory.
Weasels tend to make their homes in tree stumps or holes and create nests of leaves and grass.
A group of weasels can be called a boogle, gang, pack, and confusion.
Weasels eat a variety of other animals including rabbits, mice, voles, birds, frogs, and rats. They will also raid birds' nests and eat both the young and the eggs.
Weasels often kill more prey than they can eat, storing the overkill for later consumption.
Weasels have been known to land on the back of a bird and go for a quick flight before killing the bird as prey.
Male weasels mate with multiple females and do not provide parental care. Most species have a single litter per year. Litter size varies from 3 to 8 kittens. The young are born after a gestation period of anywhere from 35 days to more than 10 months, the latter because of delayed implantation of the fertilized egg.
Weasels kill their prey by biting the back of its neck.
They’re skilled climbers, swimmers and runners.
Weasels have been known to travel as far as 2.5 km to hunt for food.
Depending on the climate and season, they may display nocturnal or diurnal behavior.
When weasels breed each year, between April and August, they produce litters of four to six babies.
Weasels have brown to yellow-brown fur with paler fur on the belly. The tip of the tail is often black. Many weasels grow white fur in the winter, but the tip of the tail remains black.
Weasel babies are able to hunt and kill for their food when they reach between five and eight weeks of age.
Weasels have a lifespan of up to 2 – 3 years in the wild, up to 10 years in captivity.
Weasels in captivity can live as long as ten years but in the wild they tend to only live to be three years or so.
There are 10 species of weasel.
Threats to the weasel include habitat loss, hunting, being hit by vehicles, and being poisoned. They are considered vermin by farmers because they prey on chickens and game birds, as well as their eggs.
While most predators are too large to enter the dens where their prey live, the weasel, with its long body can enter its prey's burrow and kill it. Weasels will often take over the dwelling after killing its owner.
Animals and other predators that hunt and kill weasels include cats, dogs, snakes, and owls.
Weasels have been known to attack a human if it becomes scared or threatened.
Weasels eat mice, which often carry diseases, so they can be helpful to farmers. When they eat the chickens and eggs however the farmers are not happy.
The weasel and stoat are almost identical but the stoat has a black-tipped tail.
In 1861 a machine was called a helicopter, but it could not lift off the ground.
Chinese invented a flying toy that had some of the same principles as the helicopter.
Helicopters are designed with spinning rotors, which can include two or more blades that provide the lift and thrust that make vertical flight possible.
Leonardo Da Vinci had sketches of a helicopter-like flying machine.
Most helicopters have two rotors, one on the top and one on the tail.
two French men (Launoy and Bienvenu) built a feathered-model helicopter.
Because helicopters are capable of vertical take-off and landing they are ideal for accessing difficult to reach locations in emergency situations.
Sir George Cayley invented the steam-driven chopper.
Helicopters tend to be much noisier than airplanes, and they vibrate a lot.
Paul Cornu built a full-sized helicopter. It cleared the ground for a few minutes, but remained tied down by ropes.
Helicopters are capable of hovering but it is a difficult maneuver to control due to the air flow created by the rotors of the helicopter itself.
Professor Theodore von Karman and Lieutenant Stefan Petroczy built a working helicopter. However, because it didn't carry passengers, it was not officially recognized.
If the helicopter's engine stops, the rotor will often allow the helicopter to land safely because it continues to spin.
Gerald P. Herrick converted an airplane into a helicopter. It was able to land at a steep angle.
It is believed that there are approximately 45,000 helicopters operating around the world today. This number includes military helicopters.
The German-made Focke Achgelis Fa 61 was the first official helicopter.
There is a nut holding the main rotor to the shaft of the helicopter, called the 'Jesus nut'. This nut was named as such when a pilot said, "Oh Jesus, if that nut comes off..."
Igor Sikorsky made the first practical flight in the United States.
Helicopters can be used to lift heavy items into place. The Russian helicopter MIL Mi-12 Homer could lift 40,204kg to a height of 2255 meters.
It took 29 days, 3 hours, 8 minutes and 13 seconds for H. Ross Perot, Jr. and J.W. Coburn to circle the entire Earth in a helicopter. They broke the World's Record.
The first person was rescued at sea by a helicopter in 1944. It is estimated that the use of helicopters has saved more than 3 million lives in war and peace times around the world since then.
NASA is studying the helicopter to see if it could be used on Mars.
Helicopters are also referred to as helos, whirlybirds, choppers, and copters.
the fastest helicopter can reach speeds up to 400 kilometers-per-hour (248 miles-per-hour).
In 2002 a helicopter crash in Chechnya resulted in the deaths of 114 passengers. There were 147 people on board, which exceeded the helicopter's capacity by 1.5 times.
A helicopter is a type of airplane known as a vertical takeoff and landing craft (VTOL). It can have a long body or it can be short and compact. The helicopter does not have wings like an airplane. Instead it has long blades or rotors. These are attached to a shaft in the engine. It also has a tail on it with smaller rotors. The pilot uses a foot pedal and two specialized pitch sticks to control the helicopters direction.
Helicopters travel at speeds much slower than airplanes, but the advancing rotor blade can exceed the speed of sound.
If helicopters were not designed as well as they are, the vibration would be capable of shaking them apart.
The fastest recorded speed of a helicopter is roughly 248 miles per hour.
The farthest a helicopter has traveled without landing is 2213 miles.
Helicopters are often used to take photographs and film footage from the air.
Helicopters can help fight forest fires as they can carry helibuckets full of water to be dropped on strategic areas.