Great White Shark Facts

Great White Sharks live and hunt on the coast of every continent in the world except Antarctica.

Females are larger than males.

They generally prefer to live in cooler waters that have temperatures ranging from 54-75° fahrenheit.

Dorsal side (their backs) of the shark's body is dark in color (black, grey, brownish) and their bellies are completely white. Specific body coloration is excellent camouflage that prevents prey from seeing the shark.

Most of the world’s Great White Sharks live off the coast of Dyer Island, in South Africa, this area is also referred to as “Shark Alley.”

Great White Sharks can eat entire sea lion in a single meal.

Clocking in at speeds up to 35 mph, Great White Sharks are some of the fastest predators in the oceans.

Though they tend stay to close to the shore in shallower waters, they have been spotted swimming in open waters at depths of up to 3,900 feet.

Great White Sharks don't have eyelids, but they can roll their eyeballs during attack to prevent eye injury. This is especially important when they hunt sea lions which have sharp claws. In the last moment of the attack - sharks are practically blind. Other than that, they have excellent eyesight.

Early fossil records show that Great White Sharks have been swimming in Earth’s oceans for around 16 million years, though scientists believe they may be much older.

Great Whites don't produce sounds. They communicate using body language and scents.

Scientists previously thought the life expectancy of a Great White Shark was around 25 years, but a recent study shows that their life expectancy is actually around 70 years.

Sharks have six senses: Sight, smell, touch, taste, hearing, and electroreception.

Great White Sharks have excellent sense of smell: they can smell one drop of blood in a million drops of water!

Great White Sharks weigh an average of 1,500-2,400 pounds at maturity, about one ton.

Most sharks become motionless when they are flipped over. This phenomenon is called "tonic immobility" and Great Whites may experience it also. Orcas use this technique to defeat Great White Shark - they keep the shark flipped over until it stops breathing.

The heaviest Great White Shark ever recorded in the wild was estimated to weigh in at a whopping 7,328 pounds.

Great Whites have electro-receptors which detect electric field of all animals in the water. They use these receptors to locate a prey.

Like most shark species, female Great White Sharks grow much larger than the males.

Great White Sharks may attack people, but they will not eat them. Attack happens because sharks mix people with seals or other prey that they normally eat. Since people don't have as much fat as shark needs, they will not be eaten. More people die in a toaster related accidents than after a shark attack.

Typically, Great White Sharks can grow up to 21 feet in length, though females average at 15-16 feet long and males average at 11-13 feet long.

These sharks grow slowly. Males reach maturity at the age of 10, and females at age of 15. Females will give birth to 2-10 live sharks after 12 month of pregnancy. Sharks don't show parental care and babies take care of themselves from the moment they are born.

The largest Great White Shark ever recorded in the wild was estimated to be 26 feet long, more than half the length of a basketball court.

Great Whites that live near the coast of South Africa are famous for their majestic jumps from the water.

Caught off the coast of Kangaroo Island in Australia, the largest captured Great White Shark was 23.4 feet long.

Great White sharks are solitary animals (live on their own). They gather only during mating season.

There have been claims of larger Great White Sharks, but they have mostly turned out to be Basking Sharks which are very similar in appearance.

In close range, they can even sense the heartbeat of immobile prey.

Great White Sharks can't live in captivity (in aquariums) because they become disoriented and collide with aquarium glass all the time.

In a single year, Great White Sharks eat average of 11 tons of food.

Men kill over 100 million sharks each year! Number of sharks is drastically reduced and these animals are now classified as critically endangered. Some scientists estimate that only 10.000 Great White Sharks are left in the wild.
Great White Sharks live up to 60 years.

Once they have fed, Great White Sharks can go a whole three months without having to eat another meal.

They use electromagnetic fields to feel vibrations in the water of potential prey.

Facts About Pinterest

As of august 2012, Pinterest became the fourth largest traffic source in the world
This puts Pinterest directly behind Google, direct traffic, and Facebook. Pinterest also drives more referral traffic than Google+, YouTube and LinkedIn combined. This puts Pinterest ahead of Yahoo organic traffic.

Over 75 Billion pins have been uploaded to Pinterest (as of September 2016)

You can make every photo on your site easily Pinnable by adding one piece of code to your site. You simply would go to the Pinterest Widget Builder and it will create a code to add to your header scripts.

An estimated 47% of U.S. online shoppers have made a purchase based on a recommendation from Pinterest.

Shopify Customers referred by Pinterest place an average order of $80, compared to $40 for customers navigating from Facebook.

In 2014 79% of Pinterest users were female. But in 2016 already 40% of the people who signed up for Pinterest were men.

Pinterest hashtags are not available on mobile.

67% of Pinterest users are under 40-years-old. Most pinners are between 18 and 29 years old.

Pinterest hashtags are not all indexed.

As of May 2012, Pinterest referrals account for 17% of social media driven revenue on Shopify.

87% of people on Pinterest have bought a product because of Pinterest. 93% use Pinterest to plan a future purchase.

According to a comscore survey, Pinterest users follow an average of 9.3 retail companies on the site.

Pinterest hashtags may redirect traffic away from your site.

Zappos shoppers are 13 times more likely to share a purchase on Pinterest than they are on Twitter.

According to Pinterest, 93% did shop online in the past 6 months.

In 2014, Pinterest rolled out Promoted Pins to a few bigger clients. In 2015, Pinterest is reportedly rolling out self-service Promoted Pins to all businesses (similar to Facebook Promotions or Adwords).

Shoppers referred by Pinterest are 10 percent more likely to follow through with a purchase than visitors from other social networking sites.

And a study by Shopify claims that the average value of sales for visitors from Pinterest is 50$ higher than for other traffic sources.

One of the more effective tactics to increase targeted distribution on Pinterest is participation on Group Boards. The tool that many people use to find the most appropriate boards for their intended audience is Pingroupie.

11% of Pinterest pins are in the Food & Drink Category.

According to Shareaholic Pinterest is the second best social networks when it comes to driving traffic to a website – right behind Facebook. Pinterest accounts for over 5% of all referral traffic. (Compared to over 25% for Facebook and less than 1% for all other social networks)

In 2014 already 75% of all traffic to Pinterest came from mobile devices. By 2015 that number was already up to 80%.

Mothers are 61% more likely to visit Pinterest as compared to the average American.

In addition, the numbers of orders via mobile devices from Pinterest have increased by 140% in the past 2 years.

While the lifespan of a tweet is less than 10 minutes, a pin can get 50% of its engagement after 3.5 months. That is incredible. That makes evergreen images all the more valuable because a pin will still be relevant months after they have been pinned.

81% of U.S. women online trust Pinterest as a source for information and advice.

In contrast to other social networks, you can reach more people with your pin than the sheer number of your followers. Many users discover pins via the search function. In fact, many Pinterest experts claim that Pinterest is not a social network at all but rather a search engine.

Pinterest generates over 400% more revenue per click as Twitter and 27% more than Facebook.

Promoted pins perform as well or sometimes even better than „normal“ pins. Plus advertisers see that their earned impressions (free, no advertising) saw an increase of 20% from their paid campaigns.

83 percent of active users prefer to follow a brand than a notable celebrity.

As of February 1st 2013, 59 of the Interbrand Top 100 Brands are on Instagram, versus 69 on Pinterest.

73 percent of active users prefer to follow a beauty brand than a notable makeup artist.

79% of Pinterest users are Women.

70 percent of active users prefer to follow a hair care brand rather than a notable hair stylist.

Pinterest is undeniably powerful, but there are also a lot of generous and outrageous statistics about Pinterest floating around the Internets. For example, one statistic that is often quoted is that 47 percent of online consumers have made purchases referred (directly or indirectly) from Pinterest.

After Facebook and Twitter, Pinterest is ranked as the 3rd most popular social networking site.

One estimate cites Pinterest conversion 50 percent better than Facebook, which while impressive would mean that Pinterest’s conversion rate would be slightly above one-tenth of one percent. It takes a lot of impressions with .1 percent engagement to reach 167 percent.

Only 8 percent of European Internet users have a Pinterest account.

25% of Fortune Global 100 companies have Pinterest accounts. This is still relatively low in comparison to YouTube and Facebook. However, if you consider Pinterest’s age and rate of growth, this number is expected to climb.

Only 3 percent of European Internet users are active users of Pinterest.

Facts About Winter Solstice

The word "solstice" comes from the Latin solstitium, meaning "point at which the sun stands still." Since when has the sun ever moved?! Of course, before Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus came up with the 'ol heliocentric model, we all figured that everything revolved around the Earth, sun included. Our continued use of the word "solstice" is a beautiful reminder of just how far we've come and provides a nice opportunity to give a tip of the hat to great thinkers who challenged the status quo.

Winter solstice occurs when the earth's semi-axis tilts farthest from the sun. This occurs twice with the planet earth each year. When the northern hemisphere is tilted farthest from the sun, which occurs on approximately December 20th to 22nd each year, the northern hemisphere's winter begins. When the southern hemisphere is tilted farthest from the sun, which occurs on approximately June 20th to June 22nd each year, the southern hemisphere's winter begins. The maximum axial tilt of the earth is reached when the northern or southern winter solstices occur. When one hemisphere experiences summer solstice, the other hemisphere experiences winter solstice.

The word solstice is derived from Latin, meaning 'sun stands still' and was chosen because during a solstice the sun appears to remain still in its position in the sky.

Although the solstice is marked by a whole day on the calendar, it's actually just the brief moment when the sun is exactly over the Tropic of Capricorn that the event occurs.

When winter solstice occurs in the southern hemisphere it experiences its longest night and shortest day of the year. The opposite is true when the summer solstice occurs, and the southern hemisphere experiences its longest day and night.

Meteorologists consider the first day of winter to be Dec. 1, but ask an astronomer — or just about anyone else — and they'll likely answer that the winter solstice marks the start of the season. There are two ways to look at it: meteorological seasons and astronomical seasons. Meteorological seasons are based on the annual temperature cycle, explains NOAA, while astronomical seasons are based on the position of the Earth in relation to the sun.

When winter solstice occurs in the northern hemisphere it experiences its shortest day and longest night of the year. The opposite is true when the summer solstice occurs, and the northern hemisphere experiences its longest day and shortest night.

Since 1793, the full moon has only occurred on the winter solstice 10 times, according to the Farmer's Almanac. The last one was in 2010, which was also a lunar eclipse! The next full moon on a winter solstice won't be until 2094.

For days before and after the winter solstice occurs, the sun appears to stand still in the sky at its noon-time elevation.
Some confuse the solstice with the equinox. Both occur twice a year, but the equinox occurs when the sun is directly above the equator, day and night are equal in length, and the equinox marks the beginnings of fall and spring, depending on the hemisphere.

Since Christ wasn't issued a birth certificate, there's no record of the date when he was supposed to have been born. Meanwhile, humans have been celebrating the winter solstice throughout history — the Romans had their feast of Saturnalia, early German and Nordic pagans had their yuletide celebrations. Even Stonehenge has connections to the solstice. But eventually Christian leaders, endeavoring to attract pagans to their faith, added Christian meaning to these traditional festivals. Many Christmas customs, like the Christmas tree, can be directly traced to solstice celebrations.

Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, England is a popular spot during winter and summer solstice in the northern hemisphere. Newgrange in Ireland is another monument dating back thousands of years that appears to have been built in alignment with the solstice.

The winter solstice is also referred to as Midwinter, the Longest Night, and Yule.

Solstices have been used throughout history to time many important events each year, including the sowing of seeds for crops, mating of animals, harvesting of crops, and monitoring the reserves of winter food.

The actual moment that the solstice occurs cannot be observed by amateurs because the sun moves so slowly that astronomical data tracking must be used to pinpoint the actual moment of the solstice.

During the winter solstice the sun appears to be at its lowest point in the sky.

Following the winter solstice the days begin to become longer while the nights begin to shorten.

Following the winter solstice the temperatures become colder. In the northern hemisphere the coldest months are December, January and February, while in the summer hemisphere the coldest months are June, July, and August.

During the solstice, whether it is summer or winter solstice, the sun isn't moving - it's actually the earth tilting to and away from the sun.

Although winter solstice marks the beginning of the astrological winter, the coldest winter days are yet to come, often not for a month or even two in some years.

Amazing Facts About Ivory Coast

The Ivory Coast is a country located in West Africa. Its official name is the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, a name it was given when French merchant-explorers of the 1400 and 1500s when ivory was the main export of the region. The Ivory Coast is bordered by several other African countries including Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali, Guinea, and Liberia. The administrative and political capital of the Ivory Coast is Yamoussoukro and the largest city and economic capital of the Ivory Coast is Abidjan. The Ivory Coast is a mostly flat country of 124,502 square miles of land, including mountains in the north-west region.

As of 1 January 2017, the population of Cote d’Ivoire was estimated to be 23,518,859 people.

The ethnic groups that make up the Ivory Coast from the least to greatest proportion of the population include Lebanese, French, Southern Mandes, Krous, Northern Mandes, Voltaiques or Gur, and Akan.

It is bordered by Guinea and Liberia in the west, Burkina Faso and Mali in the north, and Ghana in the east and the Atlantic Ocean in the south.

It is the 68th largest country in the world in terms of land area with 322,463 square kilometers (124,504 square miles).

The official language of the Ivory Coast is French. Other languages that are spoken in the Ivory Coast include Anyin, Dan, Baoule, and Dioula.

The most dominant religion of the Ivory Coast is Islam, followed by Christianity.

Agriculture is important to the economy of the Ivory Coast. Major exports include palm oil, coffee, and cocoa beans.

Fishing and forestry are also important to the country's economy.

The Ivory Coast celebrates its independence on August 7th each year, signifying the day it gained its independence from France on August 7th, 1960.

The Ivory Coast produces more cocoa than any other country in the world, making it known for its chocolate.

The currency of the Ivory Coast is the West African Franc, a currency also used by Togo, Senegal, Niger, Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina Faso, and Benin.

The highest elevation is Mount Richard-Molard, at 1,752 meters (5,748 feet) in the far west of the country along the border with Guinea and Liberia.

The largest Basilica in the world is located in Yamoussoukro, in the Ivory Coast. It is the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace. It is 323,000 square feet in size.

The Ivory Coast's landscape consists of large flat areas of Savannah, excellent for farming and agriculture, forests, and mountains in north-west regions.

Ivory Coast has 590 kilometers (370 miles) of coastline.

The Ivory Coast is considered to be one of the most advanced countries in Africa in terms of economy, and the most advanced in sub-Saharan Africa.

Despite gaining independence from France in 1960 the Ivory Coast had a supreme leader until 1993 when he died. After his death formal elections were held for the first time.

A major food market is held in Abidjan where traders from all along the coast come to buy and sell.

Little is known about Ivory Coast’s first inhabitants, but weapon and tool fragments confirm the presence of early settlements (15,000 to 10,000 BC.).

Abidjan is the fashion capital of the Ivory Coast and of sub-Saharan Africa. Designer clothing can be purchased in boutiques in the city.

Although the name for the Ivory Coast is derived from the ivory trade that was once its biggest trade export, the ivory trade died out in the 1700s.

The name 'Les Elephants' which means 'the elephants' is the nickname for the Ivory Coasts' national football team.

Between 1000 to 1500 AD, Muslim merchants established trade routes from northern Africa to Ivory Coast. They came for gold, ivory and slaves.

There have been several civil wars in the Ivory Coast since its independence from France in 1960, including the 2011 Civil War.

Fun Facts: Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy in 1451. His name in Italian was Cristoforo Colombo, however Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of his Latin name Christophorus Columbus, and the name he has been known as throughout history. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver and owner of a cheese stand. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. He had four brothers named Giacomo, Pellegrino, Giovanni and Bartolomeo. He began working on ships early in life, and married Filipa Moniz Perestrelo, the daughter of a governor and Portuguese nobleman. In 1492 Christopher Columbus set sail to find a shorter route to Asia heading west from Spain. Instead he discovered the 'New World'.

The ships that Christopher Columbus used on his historical voyage were the Pinta, the Nina and the Santa Maria.

The reason that Columbus is considered as the first European to discover America is because he went back to Spain and told everyone about it. His discovery helped to shape the world we live in today, and so he is remembered.

Pinta is the Spanish word for 'the painted one', and the ship was given this nickname by sailors.

However, he was not the first European to set foot in the New World. The first people to find the Americas were actually the Vikings, led by Erik the Red, in the year 985. That is a full 500 years before Columbus!

The Nina's real name was the Santa Clara but was given the nickname the 'Nina' after its owner Juan Nino.

Columbus returned to America several times throughout his life. Even after it had been disproven, he still insisted that he had found the Indies and not the New World. He died in 1506.

Despite rumors to the contrary Christopher Columbus did not set out to prove the world was round. This had already been determined and most people did not believe it was flat anymore.

It is believed that the Norse Viking Leif Eriksson landed in Newfoundland about five hundred years before Christopher Columbus 'discovered' America.

Christopher Columbus never actually stepped foot on the North American mainland. He landed somewhere in the Bahamas or a nearby island first, although nobody is certain.

The Santa Maria was destroyed on the voyage when it hit a coral reef on Christmas Eve, 1492.

Because of the wreck of the Santa Maria, many crewmembers had to stay behind when Columbus returned to Spain. When Columbus returned all of the nearly 40 crewmembers were dead.

Christopher Columbus is credited with naming several islands including Montserrat, Antigua, Redonda, Nevis, Saint Kitts, Saint Eustatius, Saba, Saint Martin and Saint Croix.

Christopher Columbus saw the Virgin Islands and named them the Islands of Saint Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins.

Christopher Columbus also landed in Puerto Rico and named it San Juan Bautista.

Christopher Columbus made four trips to the New World. On his third voyage he was arrested for being brutal and for mismanaging Hispaniola. He was returned to Spain in chains.

Despite his legal issues, Christopher Columbus was granted his freedom and made his fourth voyage across the Atlantic to the New World with King Ferdinand's blessing.

Christopher Columbus died in 1506 and was buried in Spain. He was later moved to across the Atlantic to Hispaniola. He was dug up in 1795 and sent to Cuba, and then returned to Spain after the Spanish American War in 1898.

DNA testing has proven that some of the remains in Spain are his, but a box with human remains was found in a Santa Domingo cathedral in 1877 with Christopher Columbus' name on it. Some believe he is both in the Old World and the New World.

There were legal battles between Columbus' heirs and the Spanish monarchy until 1790.

Facts About Kwanzaa

Kwanzaa is a celebration held in the United States and in other nations of the African diaspora in the Americas and lasts a week. The celebration honors African heritage in African-American culture and is observed from December 26 to January 1, culminating in a feast and gift-giving. Kwanzaa has seven core principles.

Kwanzaa is a seven-day celebration from December 26th-Janurary 1st.

Kwanzaa's name is derived from the Swahili phrase 'Matunda ya Kwanzaa' which translates to 'first fruits of the harvest'.

Kwanzaa is not a religious holiday.

Kwanzaa is represented by three colors - red, green, and black.

Kwanzaa was started in 1966 by Dr. Maulana Karenga to celebrate and honor African culture and to also inspire African-Americans.

The Kwanzaa color red symbolizes the bloodshed in the African people's struggle for freedom.

Kwanzaa is mainly celebrated in the US.

The Kwanzaa color green symbolizes Africa's fertile land.

There are approximately 18 million people who celebrate Kwanzaa.

The Kwanzaa color black symbolizes the people.

Kwanzaa celebrations often include African dances, drums, storytelling and poetry.

Kwanzaa has seven principles called Nguzo Saba. These include Umoja, Kujichagulia, Ujima, Ujamaa, Nia, Kuumba, and Imani.

People who celebrate Kwanzaa have a big feast called Karamu on 12/31.

Umoja is the principle of unity - in the family and in the community.

Kujichagulia is the principle of self-determination - responsibility in one's community as well as speaking for onself.

Ujima is the principle of responsibility and collective work - building and maintaining one's community.

Ujamaa is the principle of cooperative economics - building and maintaining businesses.

Nia is the principle of purpose - developing and building goals that will benefit the community's people.

Kuumba is the principle of creativity - making a more beneficial and beautiful community for future generations.

Imani is the principle of faith - believing in the community's leaders, teachers, parents, and people.

Kwanzaa is seven days long and on each day a candle is lit and one of the seven principles are discussed.

The candle holder of Kwanzaa is called a kinara. It has a black candle in the middle with three green candles on the left and three red candles on the right.

Kwanzaa has seven symbols including Mazao, Mkeka, Vibunzi, Mishumoa Saba, Kinara, Kikombe Cha Umoja, and Zawadi.

Mazao is the symbol for vegetables, nuts, and fruits, to remind people of the harvest that fed and nourished Africa's people.

The Mkeka is a mat where the symbols of Kwanzaa are placed upon. It is often made of African cloth or straw.

The Vibunzi is an ear of corn, meant to represent fertility with one ear of corn placed on the Mkeka for every child in the family.

Mishumoa Saba is name for the seven candles of Kwanzaa representing the seven principles.

The Kinara is the candleholder that holds the seven candles of Kwanzaa, meant to symbolize corn branching off, similar to family branching off to form new family units.

The Kikombe Cha Umoja is a unity cup that people drink from to honor ancestors.

The Zawadi are the gifts that are given on January 1st - the last day of Kwanzaa. Gifts given on this day should encourage self-determination, growth, success, and achievement for the person receiving the gifts.

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